The endogenous cannabinoid system and drug addiction: 20 years after the discovery of the CB1 receptor

@article{RodrguezdeFonseca2008TheEC,
  title={The endogenous cannabinoid system and drug addiction: 20 years after the discovery of the CB1 receptor},
  author={Fernando Rodr{\'i}guez de Fonseca and Miriam Schneider},
  journal={Addiction Biology},
  year={2008},
  volume={13}
}
Cannabis sativa preparations (hashish, marijuana) have been used by humans for the last 5000 years. But being one of the oldest recreational drugs with abuse potential, its neurobiological mechanisms remained obscure until the isolation and identification in 1964 of Dtetrahydrocannabinol (THC), its main psychoactive constituent, by the group of Ralph Mechoulam (Gaoni & Mechoulam 1964). THC was the first of a series of a new class of drugs termed cannabinoids, but despite this finding, the brain… 
Analysis of Synthetic Cannabinoids in Botanical Material: A Review of Analytical Methods and Findings.
TLDR
The history of synthetic cannabinoids and how they have been detected in the illicit drug market is discussed and the analytical methods and techniques used by forensic scientists to analyze botanical products obtained via the Internet or from law enforcement investigations and arrests are discussed.
Cannabinoids, interoception, and anxiety
Noradrenergic depletion causes sex specific alterations in the endocannabinoid system in the Murine prefrontal cortex
TLDR
The results suggest that the eCB system may be more responsive in males than females under conditions of NE perturbation, thus having potential implications for sex-specific treatment strategies of stress-related psychiatric disorders.
A Novel Role of Cannabinoids in Synaptogenesis
Synapses play a major role in signalling transduction in the nervous system. They display extensive activity-driven plasticity during development, learning and memory. Here we have explored a new
The brain endocannabinoid system in the regulation of energy balance.
To Open Up New Vistas in Basic and Preclinical Addiction Research
This is a personal perspective on some of the major achievements in addiction research and especially an attempt to point out some of the most important future challenges in basic and preclinical
Repeated administration of a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist differentially affects cortical and accumbal neuronal morphology in adolescent and adult rats
TLDR
The present results show that synthetic cannabinoid administration differentially impacts cortical and sub-cortical neuronal morphology in adult compared to adolescent subjects and may underlie the disparate development effects of cannabinoids on behavior.
EDITORIAL: Addiction Biology reaches new heights
In the past 5 years, there have been major changes in Addiction Biology. The complete Editorial Board has been exchanged and the focus of the journal is now based on basic and clinical neuroscience
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 25 REFERENCES
Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids
TLDR
The cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids is reported that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen, which helps clarify the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids.
Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA
TLDR
The cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana are suggested.
Modulation of anxiety through blockade of anandamide hydrolysis
TLDR
The results indicate that anandamide participates in the modulation of emotional states and point to fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition as an innovative approach to anti-anxiety therapy.
Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor in the limbic system during cannabinoid withdrawal.
TLDR
It is suggested that long-term cannabinoid administration alters CRF function in the limbic system of the brain, in a manner similar to that observed with other drugs of abuse, and also induces neuroadaptive processes that may result in future vulnerability to drug dependence.
Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors.
Functional Interaction between Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptors in Drug Self-Administration
TLDR
The present results show the existence of a cross-interaction between opioid and cannabinoid systems in behavioral responses related to addiction and open new strategies for the treatment of opiate dependence.
A cannabinoid mechanism in relapse to cocaine seeking
TLDR
It is reported here that the synthetic cannabinoid agonist, HU210, provokes relapse to cocaine seeking after prolonged withdrawal periods, and the selective CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, attenuates relapse induced by re-exposure to cocaine-associated cues or cocaine itself, but not relapseinduced by exposure to stress.
Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain.
TLDR
The criteria for a high affinity, stereoselective, pharmacologically distinct cannabinoid receptor in brain tissue have been fulfilled.
Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain.
  • M. Herkenham, A. Lynn, +4 authors K. Rice
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1990
TLDR
The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of [3H]CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in the in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience.
Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor.
Arachidonylethanolamide, an arachidonic acid derivative in porcine brain, was identified in a screen for endogenous ligands for the cannabinoid receptor. The structure of this compound, which has
...
1
2
3
...