The endogenous cannabinoid 2‐arachidonoyl glycerol as in vivo chemoattractant for dendritic cells and adjuvant for Th1 response to a soluble protein

@article{Maestroni2004TheEC,
  title={The endogenous cannabinoid 2‐arachidonoyl glycerol as in vivo chemoattractant for dendritic cells and adjuvant for Th1 response to a soluble protein},
  author={Georges J. M. Maestroni},
  journal={The FASEB Journal},
  year={2004},
  volume={18}
}
  • G. Maestroni
  • Published 1 December 2004
  • Biology
  • The FASEB Journal
The decision‐making mechanisms that determine the choice of the appropriate effector immune response to a microbial challenge are poorly understood. The endocannabinoid 2‐ arachidonoylglycerol (2‐AG), injected intradermally in mice together with a soluble protein and a T helper‐2 (Th2) priming Toll‐like receptors (TLRs) agonist during primary immunization, shifts the memory response to the Th1 type. This effect can be shown by the enhanced hypersensitivity response and by the Th1 pattern of… 

Induction of Preferential Chemotaxis of Unstimulated B‐Lymphocytes by 2‐Arachidonoylglycerol in Immunized Mice

Results suggested that 2‐AG preferentially attracts unstimulated naive B cells rather than activated and/or class‐switched B cells, which may influence the structure of B cell compartments in secondary lymphoid tissues.

2‐Arachidonoyl‐glycerol‐ and arachidonic acid‐stimulated neutrophils release antimicrobial effectors against E. coli, S. aureus, HSV‐1, and RSV

It is shown that 2‐AG and AA stimulate neutrophils to release antimicrobial effectors and that nanomolar concentrations of AA or2‐AG were sufficient to impair viral infectivity, which suggests potential physiological roles for 2‐ AG and AA as regulators of host defense in vivo.

Modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor in microglial cells in response to inflammatory stimuli

Data demonstrate that microglial cell activation is accompanied by CB2 receptor up‐regulation, suggesting that this receptor plays an important role in microglia cell function in the CNS during autoimmune‐induced inflammation.

Endocannabinoids and the Immune System in Health and Disease.

There is a large body of data that supports a functional relevance for 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) as acting through the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) to inhibit migratory activities for a diverse array of immune cell types, but unequivocal data that support a functional linkage of anandamide (AEA) to a cannabinoid receptor in immune modulation remains to be obtained.

GPR55 regulates cannabinoid 2 receptor-mediated responses in human neutrophils

It is shown that GPR55 is expressed in human blood neutrophils and its activation augments the migratory response towards the CB2R agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), while inhibiting neutrophil degranulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.

The Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoyl-Glycerol Activates Human Neutrophils: Critical Role of Its Hydrolysis and De Novo Leukotriene B4 Biosynthesis

2-AG potently activates human neutrophils and is demonstrated to be the consequence of 2-AG hydrolysis, de novo LTB4 biosynthesis, and an autocrine activation loop involving L TB4 receptor 1.

The endocannabinoid 2‐arachidonoylglycerol activates human platelets through non‐CB1/CB2 receptors

2‐AG can be considered a new physiologic platelet agonist able to induce full platelet activation and aggregation with a non‐CB1/CB2 receptor‐mediated mechanism.

and De Novo Leukotriene B Neutrophils: Critical Role of Its Hydrolysis 2-Arachidonoyl-Glycerol Activates Human The Endocannabinoid

The following hypotheses were postulated: 1) the released AA from endocannabinoid hydrolysis would be metabolized into eicosanoids; and 2) these eicOSanoids would mediate some of the effects of endoc cannabinoidoids.

Regulation of inflammation by cannabinoids, the endocannabinoids 2‐arachidonoyl‐glycerol and arachidonoyl‐ethanolamide, and their metabolites

2‐Arachidonoyl‐glycerol (2‐AG) and arachidonyl‐ethanolamide (AEA) are endocannabinoids that have been implicated in many physiologic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndromes, hepatic

The Interplay between the Immune and the Endocannabinoid Systems in Cancer

The recent characterization of the human cannabinoid receptor CB2-Gi signaling complex will likely aid to design potent and specific CB2/CB1 ligands with therapeutic potential in cancer.
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