Endocrinopathy during sepsis can manifest as hyperglycemia and insulin resistance or as insufficient production of either adrenal corticosteroids or vasopressin. The results of a recent large clinical trial have demonstrated that tight glycemic control with insulin can confer survival benefit to selected intensive care unit patients. Relative impairment of adrenocortical reserve has been suggested to be an important contributor to the pathogenesis of shock in sepsis. Replacement doses of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids have been associated with improved survival in the subset of patients with blunted results on adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulation tests. Posterior pituitary production of vasopressin is diminished in septic shock while sensitivity to its vasopressor effects is enhanced. Clinical trials are underway to determine whether administration of vasopressin can improve outcomes in patients with septic shock. Whether the euthyroid sick syndrome represents an adaptive or a maladaptive response to severe illness remains unclear.