Sociobiology, the study of social behavior, calls for a laboratory model with specific requirements. Among the most obvious is the execution of social interactions that need to be readily observable, quantifiable and analyzable. If, in turn, one focuses on the neuroendocrinological basis of social behavior, restrictions grow even tighter. A good laboratory model should then allow easy access to its neurological and endocrine components and processes. During the last years, we have been studying the physiological foundation of social behavior on what we believe fits all the aforementioned requirements: the so called "chanchita", Cichlasoma dimerus. This Neotropical cichlid fish exhibits biparental care of the eggs and larvae and presents a hierarchical social system, established and sustained through agonistic interactions. The aim of the current article is to review new evidence on chanchita's social and reproductive behavior.