The endocannabinoid system and the brain.

@article{Mechoulam2013TheES,
  title={The endocannabinoid system and the brain.},
  author={Raphael Mechoulam and Linda A. Parker},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
  year={2013},
  volume={64},
  pages={
          21-47
        }
}
The psychoactive constituent in cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was isolated in the mid-1960s, but the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and the major endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) were identified only 20 to 25 years later. The cannabinoid system affects both central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral processes. In this review, we have tried to summarize research--with an emphasis on recent publications--on the actions of the endocannabinoid… 

Figures from this paper

Endocannabinoid System and Alcohol Abuse Disorders.

  • B. Basavarajappa
  • Biology, Medicine
    Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • 2019
Results are augmented by in vitro and ex vivo studies, showing that acute and chronic treatment with ethanol produces physiologically relevant alterations in the function of the eCB system during development and in the adult stage.

Homeostatic regulation of brain functions by endocannabinoid

  • Biology
The distribution of CB1R and CB2R in the brain determines their functional roles in cellular and molecular events and behaviors, which suggests that the primary role of the eCB system in regulation of brain function is through mediating or modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity.

Cannabinoids in the Brain: New Vistas on an Old Dilemma

A number of review papers and original articles on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system ranging from vision to cognition in mice, rats, tree shrews, monkeys, and humans are presented.

The role of the endocannabinoid system in pain.

The general features of the EC system are described as related to pain and nociception and the wealth of preclinical and clinical data involving targeting theEC system is discussed, with focus on modulation of 2-AG signalling via specific enzyme inhibitors and the role of spinal CB2 in chronic pain states.

Homeostatic regulation of brain functions by endocannabinoid signaling

  • Chu Chen
  • Biology
    Neural regeneration research
  • 2015
The distribution of CB1R and CB2R in the brain determines their functional roles in cellular and molecular events and behaviors, which suggests that the primary role of the eCB system in regulation of brain function is through mediating or modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity.

Cannabinoids and the Brain

The cannabinoid system in the brain is targetted in the use and abuse of preparations from the Cannabis plant, whose primary target in the central nervous system is the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor expressed to unusually high levels.

The Endocannabinoid System in the Retina: From Physiology to Practical and Therapeutic Applications

The use of synthetic cannabinoids as new neuroprotective drugs to prevent and treat retinal diseases and the relevance of functional retinal measures in cannabis users to evaluate the impact of cannabis use on human retinal processing are supported.

Serotonin 2A receptors and cannabinoids.

Introductory Chapter: The Endocannabinoid System in Human Physiology

The existence of endogenous ligands that share many effects of the Δ9-THC allows to formulate the attractive hypothesis that an endocannabinoid system (ECS) may play a pivotal role in a variety of centrally and periph‐ erally regulated physiological processes.

Cannabinoids and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

This chapter provides an overview of some of the biological effects of a number of the cannabinoids and terpenes, as well as discussing their known mechanisms of action and evidence of potential therapeutic effects.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 198 REFERENCES

Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids

The cloning of a receptor for cannabinoids is reported that is not expressed in the brain but rather in macrophages in the marginal zone of spleen, which helps clarify the non-psychoactive effects of cannabinoids.

The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs.

The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis

It is indicated that Δ-9-THC produces a broad range of transient symptoms, behaviors, and cognitive deficits in healthy individuals that resemble some aspects of endogenous psychoses and warrant further study of whether brain cannabinoid receptor function contributes to the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders.

Endocannabinoid system involvement in brain reward processes related to drug abuse.

Cannabinoids and anxiety.

This book chapter summarizes and conceptualizes the current knowledge about the role of (endo)cannabinoids in fear and anxiety and outlines implications for an exploitation of the endocannabinoid system as a target for new anxiolytic drugs.

Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression of the cloned cDNA

The cloning and expression of a complementary DNA that encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that is involved in cannabinoid-induced CNS effects (including alterations in mood and cognition) experienced by users of marijuana are suggested.

Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction

Regional alterations in the endocannabinoid system in an animal model of depression: effects of concurrent antidepressant treatment

The data suggest that the endocannabinoid system in cortical and subcortical structures is differentially altered in an animal model of depression and that the effects of CUS on CB1 receptor binding site density are attenuated by antidepressant treatment while those on endOCannabinoid content are not.

Effects of Endocannabinoid System Modulation on Cognitive and Emotional Behavior

Recent findings are reviewed that raise the possibility that endocannabinoid signaling may change the impact of environmental influences on emotional and cognitive behavior rather than selectively affecting any specific behavior.
...