The emerging biology of the nitrite anion

  title={The emerging biology of the nitrite anion},
  author={Mark T. Gladwin and Alan N Schechter and Daniel B. Kim‐Shapiro and Rakesh P. Patel and Neil Hogg and Sruti S. Shiva and Richard O Iii Cannon and Malte Kelm and David A Wink and Michael Graham Espey and Edward H. Oldfield and Ryszard M. Pluta and Bruce A. Freeman and Jack R Jr Lancaster and Martin Feelisch and Jon O Lundberg},
  journal={Nature Chemical Biology},
Nitrite has now been proposed to play an important physiological role in signaling, blood flow regulation and hypoxic nitric oxide homeostasis. A recent two-day symposium at the US National Institutes of Health highlighted recent advances in the understanding of nitrite biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics. 

Copper and nitric oxide meet in the plasma

A new study shows that the multicopper oxidase ceruloplasmin is critical for maintaining plasma nitrite, revealing a new link between copper and nitric oxide homeostasis.

Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics.

The latest advances in the understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent 2-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm.

NO generation from inorganic nitrate and nitrite: Role in physiology, nutrition and therapeutics

The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as a likely regulator of physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract and in the cardiovascular system. In particular, it might serve as a backup

Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide in the vasculature.

through the continuous generation of vasoactive substances including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and endothelin, the vessel wall is actively involved in regulating blood flow in response to

Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide in gastric mucosal defense.

The human stomach normally contains high levels of bioactive nitric oxide (NO). This NO derives from salivary nitrate (NO3-) that is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by oral bacteria and thereafter non-

Nitric oxide release via oxygen atom transfer from nitrite at copper(ii).

A new pathway to release nitric oxide via oxygen atom transfer from nitrite at a copper(ii) site is reported.

Nitrite as regulator of hypoxic signaling in mammalian physiology

The mechanisms and properties of these various pathways and the role played by the local concentration of free oxygen in the affected tissue are discussed and additional direct signaling events not involving free nitric oxide are proposed.

The potential role of the red blood cell in nitrite-dependent regulation of blood flow.

There is evidence that erythrocyte haemoglobin is responsible for the oxygen-dependent reduction of nitrite to modulate blood flow and ongoing work focused on defining the precise mechanisms for export of NO activity from red blood cells and of other pathways that may mediate nitrite-dependent vasodilation is discussed.

Mechanisms of nitrite bioactivation.




Nitrite is a signaling molecule and regulator of gene expression in mammalian tissues

Mammalian tissues produce nitric oxide (NO) to modify proteins at heme and sulfhydryl sites, thereby regulating vital cell functions. The majority of NO produced is widely assumed to be neutralized

Enzyme-independent formation of nitric oxide in biological tissues

It is reported that NO�’ can also be generated in the ischaemic heart by direct reduction of nitrite to NO˙ under the acidotic and highly reduced conditions that occur.

Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals.

  • F. Jensen
  • Biology
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2003

Cellular targets and mechanisms of nitros(yl)ation: An insight into their nature and kinetics in vivo

It is shown that N-Nitrosation and heme-nitrosylation are indeed as ubiquitous as S-nitrosation in vivo and that the products of these reactions are constitutively present throughout the organ system.

Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate.

L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitrics oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation.

Cytoprotective effects of nitrite during in vivo ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and liver.

The results suggest that nitrite is a biological storage reserve of NO subserving a critical function in tissue protection from ischemic injury and an unexpected and novel therapy for diseases such as myocardial infarction, organ preservation and transplantation, and shock states.

Characterization of the Effects of Oxygen on Xanthine Oxidase-mediated Nitric Oxide Formation*

Under anaerobic conditions, xanthine oxidase (XO)-catalyzed nitrite reduction can be an important source of nitric oxide (NO). However, questions remain regarding whether significant XO-mediated NO

Active Nitric Oxide Produced in the Red Cell under Hypoxic Conditions by Deoxyhemoglobin-mediated Nitrite Reduction*

It is confirmed that nitrite reduction at reduced oxygen pressures is a major source for red cell NO and the formation and potential release from the red cell of this NO could have a major impact in regulating the flow of blood through the microcirculation.

Hypoxia, red blood cells, and nitrite regulate NO-dependent hypoxic vasodilation.

Evidence that hypoxic RBCs mediate vasodilation by reducing nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) and ATP release is provided and a function for RBC hemoglobin as an allosterically and redox-regulated nitrite reductase whose "enzyme activity" couples hypoxia to increased NO-dependent blood flow is supported.