The emerging biology of the nitrite anion

@article{Gladwin2005TheEB,
  title={The emerging biology of the nitrite anion},
  author={Mark T. Gladwin and Alan N Schechter and Daniel B. Kim‐Shapiro and Rakesh P Patel and Neil Hogg and Sruti S. Shiva and Richard O Iii Cannon and Malte Kelm and David A Wink and Michael Graham Espey and Edward H. Oldfield and Ryszard M. Pluta and Bruce A Freeman and Jack R Jr Lancaster and Martin Feelisch and Jon O. Lundberg},
  journal={Nature Chemical Biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={1},
  pages={308-314}
}
Nitrite has now been proposed to play an important physiological role in signaling, blood flow regulation and hypoxic nitric oxide homeostasis. A recent two-day symposium at the US National Institutes of Health highlighted recent advances in the understanding of nitrite biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics. 
Copper and nitric oxide meet in the plasma
TLDR
A new study shows that the multicopper oxidase ceruloplasmin is critical for maintaining plasma nitrite, revealing a new link between copper and nitric oxide homeostasis. Expand
Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics.
TLDR
The latest advances in the understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent 2-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. Expand
NO generation from inorganic nitrate and nitrite: Role in physiology, nutrition and therapeutics
The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as a likely regulator of physiological functions in the gastrointestinal tract and in the cardiovascular system. In particular, it might serve as a backupExpand
Nitrite reduction to nitric oxide in the vasculature.
through the continuous generation of vasoactive substances including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandins, and endothelin, the vessel wall is actively involved in regulating blood flow in response toExpand
Nitrate, nitrite and nitric oxide in gastric mucosal defense.
The human stomach normally contains high levels of bioactive nitric oxide (NO). This NO derives from salivary nitrate (NO3-) that is converted to nitrite (NO2-) by oral bacteria and thereafter non-Expand
Nitric oxide release via oxygen atom transfer from nitrite at copper(ii).
TLDR
A new pathway to release nitric oxide via oxygen atom transfer from nitrite at a copper(ii) site is reported. Expand
An Overview of Nitrite and Nitrate: New Paradigm of Nitric Oxide
Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule responsible for the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, neurotransmission, and host defense, just to name a few of its fundamentalExpand
Nitrite as regulator of hypoxic signaling in mammalian physiology
TLDR
The mechanisms and properties of these various pathways and the role played by the local concentration of free oxygen in the affected tissue are discussed and additional direct signaling events not involving free nitric oxide are proposed. Expand
The potential role of the red blood cell in nitrite-dependent regulation of blood flow.
TLDR
There is evidence that erythrocyte haemoglobin is responsible for the oxygen-dependent reduction of nitrite to modulate blood flow and ongoing work focused on defining the precise mechanisms for export of NO activity from red blood cells and of other pathways that may mediate nitrite-dependent vasodilation is discussed. Expand
Mechanisms of nitrite bioactivation.
TLDR
Different proposed mechanisms of nitrite bioactivation are reviewed, focusing on analysis of kinetics and experimental evidence for the relevance of each mechanism under different conditions. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 107 REFERENCES
Ion implicated in blood pact
Nitric oxide has achieved fame as a regulator of numerous physiological processes, far outshining its humbler cousins, nitrate and nitrite. Now, nitrite steps into the spotlight. It appears that thisExpand
Nitrite reductase activity is a novel function of mammalian mitochondria
TLDR
It is concluded on the involvement of redox cycling that ubisemiquinone is associated with the bc1 complex and that nitrite reductase activity was totally inhibited by myxothiazol. Expand
Nitrite is a signaling molecule and regulator of gene expression in mammalian tissues
Mammalian tissues produce nitric oxide (NO) to modify proteins at heme and sulfhydryl sites, thereby regulating vital cell functions. The majority of NO produced is widely assumed to be neutralizedExpand
Enzyme-independent formation of nitric oxide in biological tissues
TLDR
It is reported that NO�’ can also be generated in the ischaemic heart by direct reduction of nitrite to NO˙ under the acidotic and highly reduced conditions that occur. Expand
Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals.
  • F. Jensen
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology
  • 2003
TLDR
Heart rate increases rapidly, before any significant elevations in metHb or extracellular potassium occur, suggesting nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Expand
Cellular targets and mechanisms of nitros(yl)ation: An insight into their nature and kinetics in vivo
  • N. Bryan, T. Rassaf, +4 authors M. Feelisch
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2004
TLDR
It is shown that N-Nitrosation and heme-nitrosylation are indeed as ubiquitous as S-nitrosation in vivo and that the products of these reactions are constitutively present throughout the organ system. Expand
Macrophage oxidation of L-arginine to nitrite and nitrate: nitric oxide is an intermediate.
TLDR
L-Arginine is required for the activation of macrophages to the bactericidal/tumoricidal state and suggests that nitric oxide is serving as an intracellular signal for this activation process in a manner similar to that very recently observed in endothelial cells, where nitrics oxide leads to vascular smooth muscle relaxation. Expand
Cytoprotective effects of nitrite during in vivo ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and liver.
TLDR
The results suggest that nitrite is a biological storage reserve of NO subserving a critical function in tissue protection from ischemic injury and an unexpected and novel therapy for diseases such as myocardial infarction, organ preservation and transplantation, and shock states. Expand
Characterization of the Effects of Oxygen on Xanthine Oxidase-mediated Nitric Oxide Formation*
Under anaerobic conditions, xanthine oxidase (XO)-catalyzed nitrite reduction can be an important source of nitric oxide (NO). However, questions remain regarding whether significant XO-mediated NOExpand
Active Nitric Oxide Produced in the Red Cell under Hypoxic Conditions by Deoxyhemoglobin-mediated Nitrite Reduction*
TLDR
It is confirmed that nitrite reduction at reduced oxygen pressures is a major source for red cell NO and the formation and potential release from the red cell of this NO could have a major impact in regulating the flow of blood through the microcirculation. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...