The efficacy and short-term effects of electronic cigarettes as a method for smoking cessation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis

@article{Khoudigian2016TheEA,
  title={The efficacy and short-term effects of electronic cigarettes as a method for smoking cessation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis},
  author={Shoghag Khoudigian and Tehsina Fatemah Devji and Lyubov Lytvyn and Kirsten Campbell and Roberta Hopkins and Daria O'Reilly},
  journal={International Journal of Public Health},
  year={2016},
  volume={61},
  pages={257-267}
}
ObjectivesE-cigarettes are increasingly popular as smoking cessation aids. This review assessed the efficacy of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation as well as desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, and adverse events in adult smokers.MethodsA systematic review was conducted. Studies comparing e-cigarettes to other nicotine replacement therapies or placebo were included. Data were pooled using meta-analysis.ResultsOf 569 articles, 5 were eligible. Study participants were more likely to stop… 
The effect of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation and cigarette smoking initiation: An evidence-based rapid review and meta-analysis
TLDR
Low certainty evidence suggests that e-cigarettes appear to be potentially effective for smoking cessation and the use of e-cigarette in adolescents may be associated with smoking initiation.
Efficacy and Safety of Electronic Cigarettes as a Smoking Cessation Intervention: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
TLDR
It is indicated that there is no clear evidence of a difference in effect between nicotine containing e-cigarettes and NRT on incidences of smoking cessation at 24–26 weeks, and substantial uncertainty remains.
Well-being and harm reduction, the consolidated reality of electronic cigarettes ten years later from this emerging phenomenon: A narrative review
  • P. Caponnetto
  • Political Science, Psychology
    Health psychology research
  • 2020
TLDR
E-cigarettes could be considered as an applicable instrument for Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) and smoking cessation and evidence suggests that they may effective as smoking cessation tool and may be less harmful alternatives to combustible cigarette smoking.
Electronic nicotine delivery systems and/or electronic non-nicotine delivery systems for tobacco smoking cessation or reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
There is very limited evidence regarding the impact of ENDS or ENNDS on tobacco smoking cessation, reduction or adverse effects: data from RCTs are of low certainty and observational studies of very low certainty.
Electronic cigarettes in physician practice: a complex debate
TLDR
This article addresses recent claims that failure to recommend ENDS for smoking cessation represents unethical practice and strongly dispute this claim, analysing the many complex issues that clinicians working in smoking cessation should consider.
A Single-Arm, Open-Label, Pilot, and Feasibility Study of a High Nicotine Strength E-Cigarette Intervention for Smoking Cessation or Reduction for People With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders Who Smoke Cigarettes
TLDR
This study showed that adults who smoke and were not motivated to quit, when provided a new-generation e-cigarette with high nicotine content, demonstrated substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects.
Nicotine and e-cigarettes addiction
Electronic cigarette use and tobacco cessation in a state-based quitline
TLDR
E-cigarette use was not associated with tobacco cessation, suggesting that e-cigarettes use may neither facilitate nor deter tobacco cessation among quitline callers, and future research should continue exploring how e- cigarette use affects quitting.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.
TLDR
The safety and effect of using ECs to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence and the main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up is evaluated.
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References

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Efficacy of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation
TLDR
There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked.
Electronic Cigarettes in North America: History, Use, and Implications for Smoking Cessation
Background— Designed to mimic the look and feel of tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may facilitate smoking cessation. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarette use for
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e-Cigarette) on smoking reduction and cessation: a prospective 6-month pilot study
TLDR
The use of e-Cigarette substantially decreased cigarette consumption without causing significant side effects in smokers not intending to quit, and perception and acceptance of the product was good.
Effectiveness and tolerability of electronic cigarette in real-life: a 24-month prospective observational study
TLDR
Long-term e-Cigarette use can substantially decrease cigarette consumption in smokers not willing to quit and is well tolerated.
EffiCiency and Safety of an eLectronic cigAreTte (ECLAT) as Tobacco Cigarettes Substitute: A Prospective 12-Month Randomized Control Design Study
TLDR
In smokers not intending to quit, the use of e-cigarettes, with or without nicotine, decreased cigarette consumption and elicited enduring tobacco abstinence without causing significant side effects.
Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (“E-cigarettes”)
TLDR
Clinicians are advised to be aware that the use of e-cigarettes, especially among cigarette smokers, is growing rapidly and these devices are unregulated, of unknown safety, and of uncertain benefit in quitting smoking.
The emerging phenomenon of electronic cigarettes
TLDR
The health effects of using electronic cigarettes are examined, with consideration given to the acceptability, safety and effectiveness of this product to serve as a long-term substitute for smoking or as a tool for smoking cessation.
Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: randomised cross-over trial
TLDR
The 16 mg Ruyan V8 ENDD alleviated desire to smoke after overnight abstinence, was well tolerated and had a pharmacokinetic profile more like the Nicorette inhalator than a tobacco cigarette.
Electronic nicotine delivery system (electronic cigarette) awareness, use, reactions and beliefs: a systematic review
TLDR
ENDS use is expanding rapidly despite experts’ concerns about safety, dual use and possible ‘gateway’ effects, and more research is needed on effective public health messages, perceived health risks, validity of self-reports of smoking cessation and the use of different kinds of ENDS.
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