The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.

@article{Krendl2012TheEO,
  title={The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.},
  author={Anne C. Krendl and Izzy Gainsburg and Nalini Ambady},
  journal={Journal of sport \& exercise psychology},
  year={2012},
  volume={34 1},
  pages={
          3-15
        }
}
Although the effects of negative stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance have been well researched, the effects of positive stereotypes on performance, particularly in the presence of observers, is not known. In the current study, White males watched a video either depicting Whites basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (positive stereotype), Black basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (negative stereotype), or a neutral sports video (control… 
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27 Given that mentally activating negative stereotypes about our social groups impairs our performance, 28 can questioning the stereotype effectively disrupt this phenomenon? We experimentally tested
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References

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Two experiments showed that framing an athletic task as diagnostic of negative racial stereotypes about Black or White athletes can impede their performance in sports. In Experiment 1, Black
Stereotype threat and sport: can athletic performance be threatened?
Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has
"White men can't jump": Evidence for the perceptual confirmation of racial stereotypes following a basketball game
An experiment was conducted to demonstrate the perceptual confirmation of racial stereotypes about Black and White athletes. In a 2 x 2 design, target race (Black vs. White) and target athleticism
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TLDR
Investigation of stereotype threat effects on women's performance in sports and the mediation of this effect by achievement goals showed that compared with the control condition, females' performance significantly decreased in the athletic ability condition and tended to decrease in the technical soccer ability condition.
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TLDR
Results of the model suggest that "reinvesting" attention in the task leads to greater anxiety (cognitive and somatic), which then predicts a higher level of self-focus, which did not lead to improved performance under pressure, whereas feelings ofself-reported "perceived control" did help performance.
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TLDR
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TLDR
Although people commonly hold positive stereotypes about Asians' mathematical skills, making these stereotypes salient prior to performance can create the potential for “choking” under the pressure of high expectations.
Investigating Physiological and Self-Reported Mediators of Stereotype Lift Effects on a Motor Task
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TLDR
It is proposed that the subtlety of stereotype activation plays a key role in creating performance boosts among targets and nontargets of stereotypes and the role of self-relevance in mediating sensitivity to stimuli is discussed.
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