The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.

  title={The effects of stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance.},
  author={Anne C. Krendl and Izzy Gainsburg and Nalini Ambady},
  journal={Journal of sport \& exercise psychology},
  volume={34 1},
Although the effects of negative stereotypes and observer pressure on athletic performance have been well researched, the effects of positive stereotypes on performance, particularly in the presence of observers, is not known. In the current study, White males watched a video either depicting Whites basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (positive stereotype), Black basketball players as the best free throwers in the NBA (negative stereotype), or a neutral sports video (control… 
“White men can't jump.” But can they throw? Social perception in European basketball
  • P. Furley, M. Dicks
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports
  • 2014
It is demonstrated that – similar to findings that have been reported in the United States – a subpopulation of German basketball players and coaches hold specific stereotypes about the abilities of black and white basketball athletes.
Stereotype threat affects the learning of sport motor skills.
Abstract Studies have shown that stereotypical conditions can affect the performance of academic as well as motor skills (for a review see Chalabaev, Sarrazin, Fontayne, Boiche, & Clement-Guillotin,
Girls can play ball: Stereotype threat reduces variability in a motor skill.
Investigation of how stereotype threat influences novice females when performing the sensorimotor task of bouncing a ball to a target suggests that stereotype threat effects may be predicated upon the correctness of the dominant motor behavior, rather than on a novice-expert distinction or task difficulty.
Stereotype Threat in Sport: Recommendations for Applied Practice and Research
Stereotype-threat theory holds that activation of a negative stereotype has a harmful effect on performance in cognitive and motor domains. This paper provides a literature review of
Age stereotypes' effects on motor learning in older adults: The impact may not be immediate, but instead delayed
&NA; Recent research with young adults has demonstrated that stereotype threat can impact not only immediate performance, but also the learning of motor skills. Studies examining this phenomenon on
“Girls should cook, rather than kick!” – Female soccer players under stereotype threat
Abstract Based on the stereotype threat theory (Steele & Aronson, 1995), we tested if female soccer players’ performance decreased when the stereotype, “ females are bad at soccer ,” was activated.
BENEFITS OF QUESTIONING STEREOTYPES 3 Questioning Stereotypes Disrupts the Effects of Stereotype Threat 42
27 Given that mentally activating negative stereotypes about our social groups impairs our performance, 28 can questioning the stereotype effectively disrupt this phenomenon? We experimentally tested
Stereotype threat and lift effects on perceived ability and motor task performance of high school physical education students: the moderating role of stereotype endorsement and domain identification
This study investigated the effects of stereotype threat and lift on perceived ability and motor task performance, and tested the moderating effects of stereotype endorsement and domain
External Factors and Athletic Performance
The science behind athletic performance has progressed significantly with the advancement of technology and research of sport. The current review examines further the effects of several external
Can stereotype threat affect motor performance in the absence of explicit monitoring processes? Evidence using a strength task.
Findings suggest that stereotype threat may impair motor skills in the absence of explicit monitoring processes, by influencing the planning stage of force production.


Stereotype Threat Effects on Black and White Athletic Performance
Two experiments showed that framing an athletic task as diagnostic of negative racial stereotypes about Black or White athletes can impede their performance in sports. In Experiment 1, Black
Stereotype threat and sport: can athletic performance be threatened?
Stereotype threat occurs when knowledge of a negative stereotype about a social group leads to less-than-optimal performance by members of that group. Although the stereotype threat phenomenon has
"White men can't jump": Evidence for the perceptual confirmation of racial stereotypes following a basketball game
An experiment was conducted to demonstrate the perceptual confirmation of racial stereotypes about Black and White athletes. In a 2 x 2 design, target race (Black vs. White) and target athleticism
Do achievement goals mediate stereotype threat?: an investigation on females' soccer performance.
Investigation of stereotype threat effects on women's performance in sports and the mediation of this effect by achievement goals showed that compared with the control condition, females' performance significantly decreased in the athletic ability condition and tended to decrease in the technical soccer ability condition.
Choking vs. clutch performance: a study of sport performance under pressure.
  • Mark P. Otten
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of sport & exercise psychology
  • 2009
Results of the model suggest that "reinvesting" attention in the task leads to greater anxiety (cognitive and somatic), which then predicts a higher level of self-focus, which did not lead to improved performance under pressure, whereas feelings ofself-reported "perceived control" did help performance.
Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans.
The role of stereotype vulnerability in the standardized test performance of ability-stigmatized groups is discussed and mere salience of the stereotype could impair Blacks' performance even when the test was not ability diagnostic.
When Positive Stereotypes Threaten Intellectual Performance: The Psychological Hazards of “Model Minority” Status
Although people commonly hold positive stereotypes about Asians' mathematical skills, making these stereotypes salient prior to performance can create the potential for “choking” under the pressure of high expectations.
Investigating Physiological and Self-Reported Mediators of Stereotype Lift Effects on a Motor Task
Achievement gaps between social groups may result from stereotype threat effects but also from stereotype lift effects—the performance boost caused by the awareness that an outgroup is negatively
Paradoxical effects of supportive audiences on performance under pressure: The home field disadvantage in sports championships.
On the basis of recent research on self-presentation and self-attention, we predicted that the presence of supportive audiences might be detrimental to performance in some circumstances.
Stereotype performance boosts: the impact of self-relevance and the manner of stereotype activation.
It is proposed that the subtlety of stereotype activation plays a key role in creating performance boosts among targets and nontargets of stereotypes and the role of self-relevance in mediating sensitivity to stimuli is discussed.