The effects of sex-role attitudes and group composition on men and women in groups

  title={The effects of sex-role attitudes and group composition on men and women in groups},
  author={Valerie P. Hans and Nancy Eisenberg},
  journal={Sex Roles},
The dual impact of group gender composition and sex-role attitudes on self-perceptions and social behavior was explored. Androgynous and stereotyped men and women were placed in groups of skewed sex composition. Subjects' self-descriptions of masculine attributes shifted significantly in the group environment. In some instances, sex role-stereotyped subjects responded most stereotypically when their gender was in the minority in the group. Differences between men and women and between… 

Sex and Gender Differences in Group Communication

This article examines the potential impact of the sex and gender composition of small groups on tile facilitation process. It explores the theory and research that yield insights into how sex or

Teaching gender-related material: The effect of group sex composition on perceptions of a female instructor

This study investigated how group sex composition affects female and male students' perceptions of female instructors who teach in the area of counseling women. Three components of person perception

Effects of Gender Diversity on Performance and Interpersonal Behavior in Small Work Groups

We examined the separate and combined impact of gender composition and training method on both the performance and interpersonal behaviors exhibited in small work groups. Participants were scheduled

Perceptions of the Sex-Role Stereotypic Characteristics of Entrepreneurs: Women's Evaluations

This study examined women's perceptions of the sex-role stereotypic characteristics of the successful entrepreneur. Women in female-headed companies gave greater weight to feminine attributes than

Sex‐role Behaviour and Leadership: An Empirical Investigation

Female nursing supervisors and subordinate nurses in an American hospital were given questionnaires to see if there was a link between sex‐role behaviour and leadership style. It is concluded that a

Discourses of 'femininity': studies in the social psychology of gender

The intention of this thesis is to examine representations of gender and gender roles in a variety of discursive situations, using the methodology of discourse analysis (a systematic method of

Communication anxiety and signing effectiveness: Testing an interference model among deaf communicators

Abstract Research reported here investigates the link between trait communication anxiety and communication behavior in a unique and under‐studied population, hearing‐impaired individuals. Four


Institutional sexism still exists today and has implications for women’s gender selfconcept. One example of how sexism influences women’s self-concept is through the process of implicit gender



The effects of the sex composition of groups on style of social interaction

Bales's revised interaction category analyses (1970) were done from audio tapes of 77 four-person discussion groups: 46 mixed-sex groups, 15 female groups, and 16 male groups. Each group discussed

Brief encounters: Impact of gender, sex-role attitudes, and partner's gender on interaction and cognition

Research on sex differences in dyadic interactions has largely neglected the effects of sex-role attitudes and has focused on overt behavior to the relative omission of information-gathering and

Effects of Group Sex Composition on Self‐Presentation and Sex‐Typing

It is proposed that the sex composition of a group affects the sex-role awareness and sex-related responses of its members, and that such effects can operate even when there is no actual or

Sex differences in student dominance behavior in female and male professors' classrooms

Measures of verbal participation and interaction among graduate students provided a comparison of male and female dominance behavior in the classroom, and measures of the contextual effect of sex of

Sex-ratios, sex-role spillover, and sexual harassment of women at work.

We propose that sexual harassment of women at work is often a product of sex-role spillover, which is defined as the carryover into the workplace of gender-based expectations for behavior that are

Sex typing and the avoidance of cross-sex behavior.

  • S. BemE. Lenney
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1976
Evidence is presented that when asked to indicate which of a series of paired activities they would prefer to perform for pay while being photographed, sex-typed subjects were more likely than either androgynous or sex-reversed subjects to prefer sex-appropriate activity and to resist sex-inappropriate activity, even though such choices cost them money.

Some Effects of Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women

  • R. Kanter
  • Psychology
    American Journal of Sociology
  • 1977
Proportions, that is, relative numbers of socially and culturally different people in a group, are seen as critical in shaping interaction dinamics, and four group types are identified in the basis

Categorical and contextual bases of person memory and stereotyping.

In three studies, subjects observed slide and tape portrayals of interacting small groups that were of mixed sex or mixed race. Hypotheses tested were (a) that social perceivers encode person

Masculinity & femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents

Preface 1. Gender, Sex Roles, and the Psychological Dimensions of Masculinity and Femininity 2. Previous Research and Overview of the Study 3. Measuring Instruments 4. Sample Characteristics and

The measurement of psychological androgyny.

  • S. Bem
  • Psychology
    Journal of consulting and clinical psychology
  • 1974
A new sex-role inventory is described that treats masculinity and femininity as two independent dimensions, thereby making it possible to characterize a person as masculine, feminine, or "androgynous" as a function of the difference between his or her endorsement of masculine and feminine personality characteristics.