Rutaecarpine, an alkaloid originally isolated from the unripe fruit of Evodia rutaecarpa, has been shown to be anti-inflammatory as it inhibits cyclooxygenase-2. It induces the activities of hepatic CYP 1A2, 2B, and 2E1 in rats. A possible interaction between rutaecarpine and acetaminophen (APAP) was investigated in male Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. When 25 mg/kg APAP was intravenously administered concurrently with 80 mg/kg rutaecarpine, the area under the curve of APAP in plasma was significantly decreased when compared to that of APAP alone. When the rats were pre-treated orally with 40 and 80 mg/kg rutaecarpine for 3 days, the % value of C(max) and area under the curve of acetaminophen-sulfate conjugate were significantly decreased to 56.4% and 61.7% of the vehicle control group, respectively. These results suggest that rutaecarpine might cause changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters of APAP in rats.