The effects of restricting publicly subsidised temazepam capsules on benzodiazepine use among injecting drug users in Australia

  title={The effects of restricting publicly subsidised temazepam capsules on benzodiazepine use among injecting drug users in Australia},
  author={Courtney L Breen and Louisa Degenhardt and Amanda Roxburgh and Raimondo Bruno and Rebecca Jenkinson},
  journal={Medical Journal of Australia},
Objective: To assess the effect of a restriction on publicly subsidised temazepam 10 mg capsules upon the injection of benzodiazepines by injecting drug users (IDUs). 
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To determine whether the increased utilisation of benzodiazepines in Australia from 2000 to 2006 could be accounted for by the increased use of Benzodiazepine among those who inject heroin, a study of hospital admissions for heroin-related deaths in Australia is conducted.
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Commentary on Degenhardt et al (2015): a new formulation for research.
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Benzodiazepines, methadone and buprenorphine: interactions and clinical management.
An overview of treatment approaches for managing BZD use in this population is presented, including strategies for minimizing abuse and addressing BZd dependence.
Lormetazepam addiction: data analysis from an Italian medical unit for addiction
There is an underestimated group of chronic benzodiazepine consumers who are often not referred to medical institutions for treatment, and even in the group of patients addicted to one substance only, an abnormal number of requests for detoxification from lormetazepam, which appears to be more “popular” than other Benzodiazepines.
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What the IDRS has revealed about the use of heroin, cocaine, methamphetamines, and injected pharmaceutical preparations over the period 1996–2006 is described and how IDRS data can be combined with pharmaceutical prescription data to evaluate the effectiveness of policies designed to reduce benzodiazepine injecting is illustrated.


The use of benzodiazepines among injecting drug users.
  • S. Darke
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Drug and alcohol review
  • 1994
The current paper examines the research on the extent of benzodiazepine use among injecting drug users and the harmful consequences associated with such use, and the implications for both clinical practice and research.
Survey of use of injected benzodiazepines among drug users in Britain
A survey was carried out to determine the extent to which different formulations of injected benzodiazepines, including triazolam and nitrazepam, lead to greater morbidity in individual users.
Recent trends in benzodiazepine use by injecting drug users in Victoria and Tasmania.
Patterns of benzodiazepine use amongst injecting drug users (IDU) in Victoria and Tasmania are different to that in other Australian jurisdictions, with available data suggesting that prevalence of injection may be increasing.
Benzodiazepine use among heroin users in Sydney: patterns of use, availability and procurement.
Doctors should avoid the prescription of benzodiazepines to injecting drug users, particularly the more readily injectable drug temazepam, which was considered by subjects to be the easiest Benzodiazepine to procure.
AIDS-related risk behaviour, polydrug use and temazepam.
It was concluded that multiple drug use and the use of temazepam were associated with behaviour that could increase exposure to HIV infection.
The nature of benzodiazepine dependence among heroin users in Sydney, Australia.
A disturbingly high proportion of heroin users meet the criteria for benzodiazepine dependence, a condition that should be regarded as a significant marker for co-morbidity among this group.
Abuse of benzodiazepines: the problems and the solutions. A report of a Committee of the Institute for Behavior and Health, Inc.
  • R. Dupont
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse
  • 1988
This report focuses specifically on the nonmedical use, or abuse, of benzodiazepines for purposes, durations, or at dosage levels not intended by the prescribing physician or in ways outside medical guidelines.
Health service utilization and benzodiazepine use among heroin users: findings from the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS).
Benzodiazepine users had more GP and psychiatrist visits, were more likely to have had an ambulance attendance and had significantly more dispensed prescriptions, and there were high levels of health utilization among heroin users.