The effects of oligomycin on photosynthesis and respiration in relation to ATP production in chloroplasts and mitochondria were investigated in protoplasts isolated from the detached pea (Pisum sativum L cv. Iłowiecki.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Gunilla) leaves treated 5 mM Pb(NO3)2. The oligomycin (OM), an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation at 0.1 µM concentration caused the inhibition of photosynthesis rate in the protoplasts from both the control and the Pb-treated pea leaves. The respiration rate and ATP/ADP ratio in the protoplasts and the activity of ATPase in mitochondria, were also diminished in the control protoplasts. These effects were not observed in the protoplasts and mitochondria isolated from the Pb-treated leaves. Oligomycin, an inhibitor of photophosphorylation at 10 µM concentration decreased ATPase activity in chloroplasts from both the control and the Pb- treated leaves. Using the method of rapid fractionation of barley protoplasts it was shown that the ATP/ADP ratio in the mitochondria from Pb-treated leaves was largely suppressed (from 1.8 to 0.4) by OM under nonphotorespiratory conditions (high CO2), whereas under photorespiratory conditions (low CO2) this ratio was high (5.3) and under OM decreased less (to 3.1). Our results indicate that oligomycin, in organelle isolated from Pb-treated leaves, had no inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial ATPase, whereas it inhibited chloroplasts ATPase. We suggest that Pb ions affected the catalytic cycle and/or conformational changes of ATPase in pea chloroplasts differently than in mitochondria. The differences in Pb responses may reflect fine mechanisms for the regulation of ATP production in the plant cells under stress conditions.