The effects of increased hay-to-grain ratio on behavior, metabolic health measures, and fecal bacterial communities in four Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo.

  title={The effects of increased hay-to-grain ratio on behavior, metabolic health measures, and fecal bacterial communities in four Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo.},
  author={Michael L. Monson and Patricia M Dennis and Kristen E. Lukas and Katherine L. Krynak and Sarah R. Carrino-Kyker and David J. Burke and Mandi W Schook},
  journal={Zoo biology},
  volume={37 5},
We evaluated whether increasing the hay-to-grain ratio offered to Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at Cleveland Metroparks Zoo would reduce oral stereotypies and alter feeding behaviors, maintain or increase serum calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, decrease serum insulin-to-glucose ratio and salivary insulin, and alter fecal bacterial community structure. Giraffe transitioned to a ∼90:10 hay-to-grain ratio in even increments over 8 weeks. A ration balancer was added during the… 

Development of an image-based body condition score for giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) and a comparison of zoo-housed and free-ranging individuals

On average, zoo-housed giraffes are less constrained by dietary resources than their free-ranging counterparts, and corresponds to reports of an improvement of zoo diets in European zoos and the subjective impression of a reduced incidence of serous fat atrophy in recent years.

An investigation of browsing enrichment, especially non-leaf foraging, on giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) at Kyoto City Zoo in Japan.

Browsing enrichment may aid in developing species-specific behaviors for giraffes managed in zoos as a means of improving animal welfare. By nature, giraffes are tree-feeding animals, including tree

The influence of feeding opportunities of six zoohoused Giraffa camelopardalis rothschild

Previous studies on captive giraffes have shown that an increase in foraging opportunities leads to reduced abnormal behaviour. This study evaluates the nocturnal behaviours of six captive giraffes,

Effect of amount of high-fibre pellet in the diet and bedding type on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, eating behaviour and rumination in bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus).

Two studies were conducted to determine the impact of the amount of high-fibre pellet (HFP) in the diet and bedding material on feed intake, eating behaviour, rumination, activity and resting



Changes in Serum Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Levels in Captive Ruminants Affected By Diet Manipulation

The results of this study indicate that the diet change had a generally positive effect on serum P and Mg levels.

Analysis of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe from surveyed North American zoological institutions.

The health history and feeding practices of giraffe in captivity in North America and to obtain samples of hay, concentrate, browse, urine, and serum to compare across zoos, possible factors relating to the development of urolithiasis are investigated.

Implementing a low-starch biscuit-free diet in zoo gorillas: the impact on behavior.

The biscuit-free diet significantly reduced R/R and may have reduced hair-plucking behavior and an increase in coprophagy was observed in many individuals following the diet change, but the overall time gorillas spent inactive actually increased with this diet change.

Eating and ruminating behavior of steers fed Coastal Bermudagrass hay at four levels.

Effects of feeding level on chewing behavior and physical reduction of particles during ingestive mastication and rumination were examined in four ruminally cannulated steers fed Coastal bermudagrass

The effect of increasing dietary fibre on feeding, rumination and oral stereotypies in captive giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis )

Many captive giraffes perform oral stereotypies, in particular tongue-playing, licking of objects (including conspecifics) and vacuum chewing. Typically, the diet of these large ruminants in

An investigation of the relationship between fecal and rumen bacterial concentrations in sheep.

Although relationships were observed between the rumen and feces for total and cellulolytic bacterial concentrations, they were dependent on diet, particle size, and level of intake, thus, fecal bacterial concentrations cannot be used to reliably predict rumen bacterial concentrations.

Serum Chemistry Comparisons Between Captive and Free-ranging Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis)

  • Debra A. SchmidtR. Barbiers M. Bush
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • 2011
Captive giraffe diets need further investigation to determine if the differences seen in this study, especially glucose and bilirubin concentrations and ALT activities, may result in some health problems often seen in captive giraffes.

Postprandial blood glucose and insulin in cows fed high grain.

The effects of ration on postprandial serum glucose and insulin were detemined in 12 lactating Holstein cows and blood changes due to high grain feeding are probably related to low milk fat production.

The feeding ecology of a selective browser, the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi)

Giraffe devote more time to foraging as the biomass and quality of the food declines in the dry season, and energy is conserved by minimizing energy-consuming activities at the most demanding times of day.