Dexmedetomidine Pretreatment Attenuates Kidney Injury and Oxidative Stress during Orthotopic Autologous Liver Transplantation in Rats
BACKGROUND Steatosis is a risk factor in partial hepatectomy (PH) under ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R), which is commonly applied in clinical practice to reduce bleeding. Nutritional support strategies, as well as the role of peripheral adipose tissue as energy source for liver regeneration, remain poorly investigated. AIMS To investigate whether the administration of either glucose or a lipid emulsion could protect steatotic and non-steatotic livers against damage and regenerative failure in an experimental model of PH under I/R. The relevance of peripheral adipose tissue in liver regeneration following surgery is studied. METHODS Steatotic and non-steatotic rat livers were subjected to surgery and the effects of either glucose or lipid treatment on damage and regeneration, and part of the underlying mechanisms, were investigated. RESULTS In non-steatotic livers, treatment with lipids or glucose provided the same protection against damage, regeneration failure and ATP drop. Adipose tissue was not required to regenerate non-steatotic livers. In the presence of hepatic steatosis, lipid treatment, but not glucose, protected against damage and regenerative failure by induction of cell cycle, maintenance of ATP levels and elevation of sphingosine-1-phosphate/ceramide ratio and phospholipid levels. Peripheral adipose tissue was required for regenerating the steatotic liver but it was not used as an energy source. CONCLUSION Lipid treatment in non-steatotic livers provides the same protection as that afforded by glucose in conditions of PH under I/R, whereas the treatment with lipids is preferable to reduce the injurious effects of liver surgery in the presence of steatosis.