The effects of enalapril‐digoxin‐diuretic combination therapy on nutritional and anthropometric indices in chronic congestive heart failure: preliminary findings in cardiac cachexia

@article{Adigun2001TheEO,
  title={The effects of enalapril‐digoxin‐diuretic combination therapy on nutritional and anthropometric indices in chronic congestive heart failure: preliminary findings in cardiac cachexia},
  author={Adegboyega Q. Adigun and Adesuyi A Leslie Ajayi},
  journal={European Journal of Heart Failure},
  year={2001},
  volume={3}
}
Malnutrition and Cachexia in Heart Failure.
TLDR
The evaluation of nutrition status in heart failure, the pathophysiology of cardiac cachexia is explored, and therapeutic interventions targeting wasting in patients with heart failure are discussed.
Nutritional Considerations of Cardiovascular Diseases and Treatments
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to recapitulate recent data on nutritional considerations in cardiovascular medicine and explain why high proportion of hospitalized patients with cardiovascular diseases remains underdiagnosed with malnutrition.
Nutrition and heart failure: impact of drug therapies and management strategies.
TLDR
The clinician can help minimize morbidity from nutrition impairment through appropriate monitoring and correction of baseline and medication-induced electrolyte imbalances, in addition to vitamin and mineral supplementation when appropriate.
Optimal management of cancer anorexia–cachexia syndrome
TLDR
Although bodyweight is the most important endpoint of any cachexia treatment, body composition, physical performance and quality of life should be monitored and one can speculate that a single therapy may not be completely successful in the treatment of cachexia.
Cachexia in malaria and heart failure: therapeutic considerations in clinical practice
TLDR
How and why cachexia develops in malaria in a manner similar to the cachexia of chronic heart failure and the treatment strategies that would alter outcomes in both diseases are discussed in this review.
Pharmacological treatment of geriatric cachexia: evidence and safety in perspective.
Muscle wasting in heart failure
TLDR
Specific issues related to muscle wasting and nutritional status in patients with HF are reviewed; however, no established strategies currently exist to focus on patients suffering from muscle wasting with malnutrition.
Novel targeted therapies for cancer cachexia.
TLDR
A multi-targeted approach seems absolutely essential to treat patients affected by cancer cachexia and should not only involve combinations of drugs but also nutrition and an adequate program of physical exercise, factors that may lead to a synergy, essential to overcome the syndrome.
Incidence and Impact of Cardiac Cachexia in Valvular Surgery
TLDR
Cardiac cachexia remains an important problem in patients undergoing valve surgery, which indicates end-staged disease, and contributes to poor perioperative outcomes and special care and attention are needed in this particular group of patients.
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References

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Hormonal changes and catabolic/anabolic imbalance in chronic heart failure and their importance for cardiac cachexia.
TLDR
It is suggested that the syndrome of heart failure progresses to cardiac cachexia if the normal metabolic balance between catabolism and anabolism is altered.
Cardiac cachexia: a syndrome with impaired survival and immune and neuroendocrine activation.
TLDR
The available evidence suggests that cardiac cachexia is a multifactorial neuroendocrine and metabolic disorder with a poor prognosis with a complex imbalance of different body systems that may cause the development of body wasting.
Gastro-intestinal protein loss in elderly patients with cardiac cachexia.
TLDR
It is concluded that gastro-intestinal protein loss is not a significant factor in the production of cardiac cachexia and values are within the expected normal range.
Cytokines and neurohormones relating to body composition alterations in the wasting syndrome of chronic heart failure.
TLDR
The levels of catabolic hormones and cytokines correlated significantly with reduced muscle and fat tissue content and reduced bone mass and peripheral loss of muscle tissue is a general finding in chronic heart failure.
A three year clinical review of the impact of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on the intra hospital mortality of congestive heart failure in Nigerians.
TLDR
Converting enzyme inhibitor therapy may reduce intra hospital mortality in Black Africans hospitalized for congestive heart failure and shorten hospital stay, despite the epidemiologically low plasma renin in Blacks.
Cardiac cachexia is a world-wide problem.
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