Effects of Fullerenols on Mouse Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
STUDY OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of peritoneal exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) on peritoneal microcirculation and free radical scavenger (FRS) metabolism, and its role in potential adhesion formation after operative laparoscopy. DESIGN Randomized, controlled study (Canadian Task Force classification I). SETTING University-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS Twenty-eight women undergoing operative laparoscopy for adnexal masses. INTERVENTION For each patient, a 1 x 1-cm sidewall peritoneal flap was excised at the end of laparoscopy and numbered randomly. Similar flaps obtained from 24 women immediately after entering the abdomen during laparotomy served as controls. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH) levels were studied in homogenized peritoneal tissues. The duration of CO2 exposure and amount of CO2 used were correlated with levels of free radical scavengers and compared with controls. Mean CO2 exposure, amount of CO2 used, and CO2 pressure (15 mm Hg) was similar between low irrigation and irrigated laparoscopy (118.3 +/- 25 and 39.2 +/- 8.81 min and 125 +/- 20 and 44.5 +/- 6.81 min, respectively). The change in FRS levels was significantly correlated with duration and amount of CO2 exposure (r = -0.92). Levels of GSH-Px, SOD, CAT, and GSH were significantly lower in the CO2 exposure group than in controls (0.57 micro mol, 1.8 ng, 48.5 micro mol, 1.5 nmol vs 0.8 micro mol, 2.6 +/- 0.4 ng, 79 micro mol, 3.6 nmol, respectively). CONCLUSION Exposure to CO2 has adverse effects on peritoneal microcirculation and cell-protective systems, which are proposed mechanisms in adhesion formation. Avoiding long CO2 exposure and copiously irrigating the abdominal cavity throughout surgery may lessen these effects. The potential role of the peritoneal FRS system on postoperative adhesion formation and its relation to estrogen status mandates further studies.