The impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular and diabetic complications associated with an improvement in survival has overshadowed the adverse skeletal health and development of kidney stone disease in this population. All longitudinal based studies in the literature reporting the incidence of bone fractures or kidney stones following bariatric surgery were reviewed. Moreover, all publications over the past decade which assessed changes in bone mineral density and bone quality, or explored underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of bone and kidney stone disease were carefully reviewed. This review provides sufficient data to support that osteoporotic fractures and kidney stone disease are associated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. However, due to the limited data available to date, no definitive conclusion could yet be drawn whether sleeve gastrectomy or adjustable gastric banding is associated with bone fractures and kidney stones. Bariatric surgery has emerged as the most effective and sustained treatment for weight reduction. This treatment modality has been recognized to diminish the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and ameliorate diabetes mellitus complications. The derangement in mineral metabolism has emerged as a major complication following bariatric surgery.