Albumin synthesis was measured in the isolated perfused rat liver by using the livers of both well-fed and starved rats. Starvation markedly decreased albumin synthesis. The livers from starved rats were unable to increase synthesis rates after the addition to the perfusates of single amino acids or the addition of both glucagon and tryptophan. Arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, threonine, tryptophan and valine, added together to ten times their normal peripheral blood concentrations, restored synthesis rates to normal. The plasma aminogram (i.e. the relative concentrations, of amino acids) was altered by depriving rats of protein for 48h. The use of blood from the deprived rats as perfusate, instead of normal blood, decreased albumin synthesis rates significantly by livers obtained from well-fed rats. The addition of single amino acids, including the non-metabolizable amino acid, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, to the above mixture increased albumin synthesis rates to normal values. It is concluded that amino acids play an important role in the control of albumin synthesis and that more than one mechanism is probably involved.