• Corpus ID: 32164017

The effectiveness of different methods of toilet training for bowel and bladder control.

@article{Klassen2006TheEO,
  title={The effectiveness of different methods of toilet training for bowel and bladder control.},
  author={Terry P Klassen and Darcie A. Kiddoo and Mia Eileen Lang and Carol Friesen and Kelly Russell and Carol H Spooner and B. Vandermeer},
  journal={Evidence report/technology assessment},
  year={2006},
  volume={147},
  pages={
          1-57
        }
}
OBJECTIVES The objectives of this report are to determine the following: (1) the effectiveness of the toilet training methods, (2) which factors modify the effectiveness of toilet training, (3) if the toilet training methods are risk factor for adverse outcomes, and (4) the optimal toilet training method for achieving bowel and bladder control among patients with special needs. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid OLDMEDLINE, Cochrane Central… 
Toilet training: methods, parental expectations and associated dysfunctions.
TLDR
The training methods that exist are the same from decades ago and are rarely used by mothers and valued little by pediatricians; incorrect training can be a causative factor for bladder and bowel disorders, which in turn cause problems for children and their families.
Improving continence in children and young people with neurodisability: a systematic review and survey.
TLDR
A systematic review of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and factors that modify intervention implementation, alongside a cross-sectional, online survey of current practice with health professionals, parent carers, school and care staff and young people with neurodisability found a dearth of good-quality evidence for many of the interventions currently in use.
Advancing Continence in Typically Developing Children: Adapting the Procedures of Foxx and Azrin for Primary Care
TLDR
There is little research on intensive toilet training of typically developing children, and practice sits and positive reinforcement for voids in the toilet are commonplace, consistent with the Foxx and Azrin protocol.
Achieving urinary continence in children
TLDR
The decision to start toilet training a child should take into account both the parents' expectation of how independent the child will be in terms of toileting, and the child's developmental readiness, so that a realistic time course for toilet training can be implemented.
Treino do bacio: estudo observacional numa amostra de crianças saudáveis entre os 18 e os 42 meses
TLDR
Toilet training shows a high variability of factors in this population and it is found that female children of employed mothers with less formal education living in rural areas initiate toilet training earlier.
Monitoring Progress in Toilet Training
TLDR
While methods of direct observation and measures of toileting behavior will be a primary focus here, measures related to verifying the fidelity of methods, materials, and procedures necessary for the successful implementation of toilet training with integrity also are presented.
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