The effect of word frequency, word predictability, and font difficulty on the eye movements of young and older readers.

@article{Rayner2006TheEO,
  title={The effect of word frequency, word predictability, and font difficulty on the eye movements of young and older readers.},
  author={Keith Rayner and Erik D. Reichle and Michael J. Stroud and Carrick C. Williams and Alexander Pollatsek},
  journal={Psychology and aging},
  year={2006},
  volume={21 3},
  pages={
          448-65
        }
}
Young adult and older readers' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences containing target words that varied in frequency or predictability. In addition, half of the sentences were printed in a font that was easy to read (Times New Roman) and the other half were printed in a font that was more difficult to read (Old English). Word frequency, word predictability, and font difficulty effects were apparent in the eye movement data of both groups of readers. In the fixation time data, the… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Effects of word frequency and visual complexity on eye movements of young and older Chinese readers
TLDR
An eye movement investigation of adult age differences in Chinese reading found older Chinese readers appear to use a careful reading strategy according to which they move their eyes cautiously along lines of text and skip words infrequently, which is proposed to compensate for increased difficulty processing word boundaries in Chinese.
Effects of Word Predictability and Preview Lexicality on Eye Movements During Reading: A Comparison Between Young and Older Adults
TLDR
The present eye-tracking study reexamined the claim that older adults adopt a risky reading strategy, utilizing the boundary paradigm to manipulate parafoveal preview and contextual predictability of a target word and suggests that older adult reading strategies are not as risky as was previously claimed.
Eye movements of older and younger readers when reading disappearing text.
TLDR
There is compelling evidence that for both older and younger readers, cognitive/lexical processing has a very strong influence on when the eyes move in reading.
Adult Age Differences in Effects of Text Spacing on Eye Movements During Reading
TLDR
It is concluded that visual rather than lexical processing is disrupted more for older readers when text spacing is condensed and discusses this finding in relation to common age-related visual deficits.
Interaction effects of aging, word frequency, and predictability on saccade length in Chinese reading
TLDR
The findings suggest that the word processing function of older Chinese readers in terms of saccade targeting declines with age, as well as larger predictability effects on data of raw total reading time.
Effects of Aging and Text-Stimulus Quality on the Word-Frequency Effect During Chinese Reading
TLDR
Chinese older readers’ lexical processing is resilient to reductions in stimulus quality, perhaps due to greater experience recognizing words from impoverished visual input, consistent with an aging effect on the processing of high- and low-frequency words.
The Effects of Word Frequency and Word Predictability During First- and Second-Language Paragraph Reading in Bilingual Older and Younger Adults
TLDR
Bilingual older adults experience changes in word-level processing that are language-non-specific that are insensitive to graded differences in current L2 experience, potentially because lexical representations reach a functional ceiling over time.
The Effects of Context on Processing Words During Sentence Reading Among Adults Varying in Age and Literacy Skill
TLDR
It is suggested that aging readers (regardless of reading skill) are more sensitive to context for meaning-integration processes; that less skilled adult readers (Regardless of age) depend more on a constrained semantic representation for comprehension; and that the capacity for literacy engagement enables continued development of efficient lexical processing in adult reading development.
Aging and the use of interword spaces during reading: Evidence from eye movements
TLDR
Whereas older adults’ normal eye movements were substantially disrupted when text lacked conventional interword spaces, the process of lexical access associated with the word frequency effect was no more difficult for older than for young adults.
A further look at ageing and word predictability effects in Chinese reading: Evidence from one-character words
TLDR
The results replicate the finding that older adults produce larger word predictability effects in reading times but not word-skipping, despite high skipping rates, and discuss these findings in relation to ageing effects on reading in different writing systems.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 81 REFERENCES
The effects of frequency and predictability on eye fixations in reading: implications for the E-Z Reader model.
TLDR
Simulations of these data using the E-Z Reader model indicated that a single-process model was unlikely to provide a good fit for both measures, indicating that the relationship between the duration of hypothesized word-encoding stages and observed fixation durations is not likely to be transparent.
Contextual effects on word perception and eye movements during reading
Eye Movements of Highly Skilled and Average Readers: Differential Effects of Frequency and Predictability
TLDR
It appears that reading skill can interact with predictability to affect the word recognition processes used during silent reading.
Length, frequency, and predictability effects of words on eye movements in reading
We tested the effects of word length, frequency, and predictability on inspection durations (first fixation, single fixation, gaze duration, and reading time) and inspection probabilities during
Lexical complexity and fixation times in reading: Effects of word frequency, verb complexity, and lexical ambiguity
TLDR
The results suggest that verb complexity does not affect lexical access time, and that word frequency and the presence of two highly likely meanings may affect lexicals access and/or postaccess integration.
Parafoveal word processing during eye fixations in reading: Effects of word frequency
TLDR
Eye fixations in reading showed shorter fixations on high-frequency than on low-frequency target words, and readers gained more effective previews from high- frequencies parafoveal target words than from low- frequencies.
Comparing naming, lexical decision, and eye fixation times: Word frequency effects and individual differences
TLDR
In general, the results suggest that both the naming and the lexical decision tasks yield data about word recognition processes that are consistent with effects found in eye fixations during silent reading.
Aging and the effects of knowledge on on-line reading strategies.
  • L. Miller, E. Stine-Morrow
  • Psychology
    The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences
  • 1998
TLDR
Older LK readers who were above average in recall were differentially slowed at boundaries showing that successful older readers who lacked a situation model with which to interpret text allocated differentially more time to organize and integrate text than did their younger counterparts.
...
...