The effect of tick challenge on grooming rate by impala

@article{Mooring1995TheEO,
  title={The effect of tick challenge on grooming rate by impala},
  author={Michael S. Mooring},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1995},
  volume={50},
  pages={377-392}
}
  • M. Mooring
  • Published 1 August 1995
  • Biology
  • Animal Behaviour
Grooming is among the most commonly performed parasite defence behaviour patterns and is eVective in removing ticks. Because both tick infestation and grooming activity have a cost, natural selection should favour individuals that match the current level of tick threat with an appropriate level of tick-defence grooming eVort. To test this notion, the relationship between seasonal tick challenge and grooming rate by wild, free-ranging impala, Aepyceros melampus, was investigated in Zimbabwe… 
Role of Grooming in Biological Control of Ticks
  • B. Hart
  • Biology, Medicine
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2000
TLDR
Evidence from numerous studies on antelope in Africa strongly support the concept that the delivery of bouts of grooming reflects programmed grooming rather than stimulus driven or reactive grooming, resulting in removal of ticks before they attach and begin to feed.
Self grooming in impala mothers and lambs: testing the body size and tick challenge principles
TLDR
Self-grooming rates of impala, Aepyceros melampus, lambs and their mothers at three study sites ranging from tick-dense to tick-sparse or tick-free were tested, with predicted results in line with the concept that an intrinsic grooming clock is responsible for regulating body-size and tick-challenge specific grooming rates that enable impala to survive and thrive in a tick-infested environment.
Grooming in impala: Role of oral grooming in removal of ticks and effects of ticks in increasing grooming rate
TLDR
Two experiments demonstrate that oral grooming is very effective and important in removing fitness-compromising ticks in free-ranging impala and exposure to, and subsequent infestation by, ticks increases the rate of grooming.
The biological basis of grooming in moose: programmed versus stimulus-driven grooming
TLDR
The predominance of stimulus-driven grooming and apparent absence of programmed grooming may be the result of relaxed selection pressure for grooming in the evolutionary history of moose, which may not have had the time to adapt to winter ticks.
The evolution of parasite-defence grooming in ungulates
TLDR
This is the first phylogenetically controlled comparative study to report the evolution of parasite-defence grooming behaviours in response to selection pressures predicted by the programmed grooming hypothesis.
TICK DEFENSE STRATEGIES IN BISON: THE ROLE OF GROOMING AND HAIR COAT
TLDR
Bison performed grooming or grooming-like behaviours at a high rate during October, but groomed very little from November to April, when nymphal and adult ticks predominated, suggesting that tick defense in bison is highly effective.
Sexually and developmentally dimorphic grooming: A comparative survey of the ungulata
TLDR
The results indicate that sexually dimorphic grooming is widespread in the ungulate species surveyed, suggesting that programmed grooming evolved at least as early as the common ancestor to the Artiodactyla.
Relationship between grooming and tick threat in sika deer Cervus nippon in habitats with different feeding conditions and tick densities
TLDR
Self-grooming duration and allogrooming duration did not correlate with tick density at either study sites, suggesting that the most important function of this behavior is a social one, rather than the removal of ectoparasites.
Tick-removal grooming by elk (Cervus elaphus): testing the principles of the programmed-grooming hypothesis
TLDR
The grooming behaviour of elk was observed in order to test the predictions of the programmed-grooming hypothesis, and the prediction of the "tick-challenge principle" that hosts will groom more frequently when the threat of tick infestation is greater is supported.
Grooming in desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) and the ghost of parasites past
TLDR
Grooming behavior in a Chihuahuan desert population of bighorn sheep, where ticks have been absent for perhaps thousands of years, is observed, suggesting that programmed grooming evolved in a tick-infested environment.
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