The effect of smoking on the male excess of bladder cancer: A meta‐analysis and geographical analyses

  title={The effect of smoking on the male excess of bladder cancer: A meta‐analysis and geographical analyses},
  author={Marjolein Hemelt and Hidekazu Yamamoto and Kar Keung Cheng and Maurice P. A. Zeegers},
  journal={International Journal of Cancer},
Smoking is considered the primary risk factor for bladder cancer. Although smoking prevalence and bladder cancer incidence vary around the world, bladder cancer is on average 4 times more common in males than in females. This article describes the observed male–female incidence ratio of bladder cancer for 21 world regions in 2002 and 11 geographical areas during the time period 1970–1997. A meta‐analysis, including 34 studies, was performed to ascertain the increased risk for bladder cancer in… 
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