The effect of primed goals on employee performance: Implications for human resource management

@article{Shantz2011TheEO,
  title={The effect of primed goals on employee performance: Implications for human resource management},
  author={Amanda Shantz and Gary P. Latham},
  journal={Human Resource Management},
  year={2011},
  volume={50},
  pages={289-299}
}
Overwhelming evidence in the behavioral sciences shows that consciously set goals can increase an employee's performance. Thus, HR professionals have had little, if any, reason to be interested in subconscious processes. In the past decade, however, laboratory experiments by social psychologists have shown that goals can be primed. That is, people's behavior is affected by goals of which they are unaware. Because a conscious goal consumes cognitive resources, this finding has important… Expand
Prime and Performance: Can a CEO Motivate Employees Without Their Awareness?
Work motivation research is at a crossroads with the discovery of the causal effects of primed subconscious goals in addition to those of consciously set goals on performance. Although socialExpand
The effect of context‐specific versus nonspecific subconscious goals on employee performance
We investigated the effect of context-specific versus general subconscious goals on job performance in a call center. Employees (n = 54) were randomly assigned to a condition where they were primedExpand
The Credibility of Goal Priming Research in Work and Organizational Psychology
Four criteria attest to the credibility of subconscious goal effects on organizational related behavior. First, the findings support hypotheses derived from goal setting theory. Second, the empiricalExpand
Picture this: A field experiment of the influence of subtle affective stimuli on employee well-being and performance
Summary Prior literature examining the antecedents of employee affect has largely ignored subtle affective influences in the workplace and their impact on employees' affective experiences andExpand
Prime time: The strategic use of subconscious priming to enhance customer satisfaction
A growing body of work explores how priming goals in the subconscious can improve employee productivity. Likewise, practitioners and scholars are seeking strategies and techniques for improvingExpand
Toward an Integration of Goal Setting Theory and the Automaticity Model
Two laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the extent to which goal setting theory explains the effects of goals that are primed in the subconscious on task performance. The first experimentExpand
The effects of priming with age stereotypes on a PC-based mail-sorting task
TLDR
The findings indicate that the performance of older workers may indeed be modifiable by unconscious negative as well as positive priming. Expand
The Effect of a Consciously Set and a Primed Goal on Fair Behavior
Three experiments were conducted to test whether an enhanced degree of fair behavior could be obtained by making justice a goal, whether consciously set, primed, or both. Each experiment assessedExpand
Setting Goals in Different Roles: Applying Key Results From the Goal-Setting Literature
Decades of research have demonstrated that managers can effect substantial performance improvements by setting challenging and specific performance goals (Locke & Latham, 2002), providingExpand
Susceptibility to the ‘Dark Side’ of Goal-Setting: Does Moral Justification Influence the Effect of Goals on Unethical Behavior?
Setting goals in the workplace can motivate improved performance but it might also compromise ethical behavior. In this paper, we propose that individual differences in the dispositional tendency toExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 75 REFERENCES
An exploratory field experiment of the effect of subconscious and conscious goals on employee performance
The effect of both a primed and a conscious goal on performance in the workplace was investigated. The primed goal was pilot tested. People on their way to work (n = 52) shown a photo of a womanExpand
The Illusion of Will in Organizational Behavior Research: Nonconscious Processes and Job Design
Theorizing and research in organizational behavior implicitly or explicitly assumes that behavior is the product of conscious will. However, an extensive body of literature suggests that much ofExpand
The Relevance and Viability of Subconscious Goals in the Workplace
This article examines the relevance and viability of pursuing empirical research on subconscious goals and applying the findings in the workplace. Five topics are addressed: First, reasons whyExpand
Importance of participative goal setting and anticipated rewards on goal difficulty and job performance.
Engineers/scientists (n = 76) either participated in the setting of, or were assigned, specific behavioral goals during their performance appraisal. Participative goal setting resulted in moreExpand
Nonconscious motivations: Their activation, operation, and consequences.
Self-regulation is one of the most important aspects of human existence. Deciding which goals to pursue and then engaging in goal-directed action is a fundamental process underlying many of aExpand
Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research, and Practice
Editor's Comments Preface: Person-Environment Fit 13 Critical Incidents in the Life of a Practitioner/Scientist Part I The 20th Century: Understanding the Past 1900-1925 Experimental PsychologyExpand
What Should we do About Motivation Theory? Six Recommendations for the Twenty-First Century
We present six recommendations for building theories of work motivation that are more valid, more complete, broader in scope, and more useful to practitioners than existing theories. (1) IntegrateExpand
Automaticity of social behavior: direct effects of trait construct and stereotype-activation on action.
TLDR
Experiment 1 showed that participants whose concept of rudeness was printed interrupted the experimenter more quickly and frequently than did participants primed with polite-related stimuli, consistent with the content of that stereotype. Expand
The psychology of goals
G.B. Moskowitz, H. Grant, Introduction: Four Themes in the Study of Goals. Part 1. What (and Where) are Goals? A.W. Kruglanski, C. Kopetz, What Is So Special (and Nonspecial) about Goals? A View fromExpand
Work and motivation
Why do people choose the careers they do? What factors cause people to be satisfied with their work? No single work did more to make concepts like motive, goal incentive, and attitude part of theExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...