OBJECTIVES Percutaneous intervention for coronary revascularization is associated with an increased risk of repeat revascularization, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study we sought to examine the effect of previous percutaneous intervention on the rate of adverse perioperative outcome and intermediate-term survival in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. METHODS Between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2006, 1758 consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus who underwent first-time isolated coronary artery bypass surgery were identified. Survival and major perioperative complications for 1537 patients who did not have prior percutaneous intervention (group 1) were compared with those in 221 patients with prior percutaneous intervention (group 2) after adjusting for baseline risk factors. Vital status was determined by using the National Death Index and Social Security Death Index. Age-adjusted survival at 2 years' follow-up was calculated with the Cox singular proportional hazards model. RESULTS At baseline, group 2 patients had higher incidences of hypercholesterolemia and myocardial infarction. Compared with group 1 patient, group 2 patients had significantly higher operative mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 4.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-11.63), perioperative major adverse cardiac events (adjusted odds ratio, 2.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-6.85), and atrial fibrillation (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-3.01). Group 2 patients had worse age-adjusted survival at 2 years' follow-up (93.4% vs 87.4%, P < .017). CONCLUSIONS Patients with diabetes mellitus and a history of percutaneous coronary stenting before coronary artery bypass surgery were found to have an increased risk of operative death, increased perioperative complications, and decreased age-adjusted survival at 2 years' follow-up.