Thermodynamic investigation of the interaction between cyclodextrins and preservatives - Application and verification in a mathematical model to determine the needed preservative surplus in aqueous cyclodextrin formulations.
OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of parabens, in a mouthwash and in a slow release device, against cariogenic bacteria in the oral cavity. METHODS Parabens were formulated in a mouthwash or in a topical slow release varnish preparation. In two separate studies, volunteers were asked to use the mouthwash or the slow release varnish applied in a personal night guard device. The levels of mutans streptococci (MS), Lactobacilli (LB) and total cultivated bacteria were measured before and after using the mouthwash or the slow release varnish. RESULTS The mouthwash containing parabens had a minor and a short-term effect on MS and LB counts in human saliva. The use of slow release varnish containing parabens, applied in a night guard, had a prolonged antibacterial effect on both MS and LB counts. CONCLUSIONS Parabens in a mouthwash had little effect on oral bacteria counts; however, paraben in the slow release device had a significant and an extended effect in reducing oral bacteria. Although substantial reductions in oral bacterial counts were recorded after the use of parabens in a slow release device, this effect could probably be enhanced by an improved pharmaceutical formulation.