The effect of olanzapine pretreatment on acute cocaine toxicity in mice

@article{Heard2009TheEO,
  title={The effect of olanzapine pretreatment on acute cocaine toxicity in mice},
  author={Kennon Heard and Nathan R Cleveland and Shay Krier},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  year={2009},
  volume={47},
  pages={542 - 544}
}
Background. Acute cocaine poisoning causes neuroexcitation and can be fatal. The toxic effects of cocaine can be attenuated by antagonists of serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, and dopamine receptors. Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic medication, is an antagonist of these receptors. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of olanzapine pretreatment for attenuation of acute cocaine toxicity using a mouse model. Methods. Eighty male CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to… 

Experimental Treatments for Cocaine Toxicity: A Difficult Transition to the Bedside

Clinicians rely on rapid cooling, benzodiazepines, and α-adrenergic antagonists for management, with years of proven benefit, but experimental agents have been developed to more effectively treat acute toxicity.

Benzodiazepines and antipsychotic medications for treatment of acute cocaine toxicity in animal models – A systematic review and meta-analysis

It is concluded that both benzodiazepines and antipsychotic medications are effective for the prevention of lethality from cocaine toxicity in animal models.

Nephrotoxic Effects of Chronically Administered Olanzapine and Risperidone in Male Rats

It was determined significant nephrotoxic effects were determined on rat kidneys, including losing regularities in both tubular and glomerular structure of kidneys, focal necrosis in some area of renal cortex and medulla, cells with pyknotic nuclei and eosinophilic cytoplasm in both glomersular capillaries and mesangium.

Effects of Verapamil and Olanzapine in Terminating Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Seizures in Mice

Verapamil and olanzapine had anticonvulsant activity when used at applied doses in the pilocarpine model of seizures in mice, and both drugs produced highly significant changes in mean serum concentration of electrolytes, glutathione and malondialdehyde.

The genotoxic and oxidative damage potential of olanzapine in vitro

The genotoxic potential of OLZ has been evaluated in human whole blood cultures related to oxidative status and it is concluded that the OLZ can be used safely, but it is necessary to consider the tissue damages that are likely to appear depending on the oxidative stress.

A potential case of peduncular hallucinosis treated successfully with olanzapine.

A posited case of peduncular hallucinosis treated successfully with olanzapine is presented and it is suggested that the origin of the VH in the patient's case could have been either/both from an ischemic insult at the midbrain or compression of the brainstem due to aneurism.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 14 REFERENCES

The effect of haloperidol in cocaine and amphetamine intoxication.

Ziprasidone, diazepam, or the combination for prevention of cocaine toxicity in a mouse model.

Diazepam and ziprasidone have efficacy for preventing lethality from cocaine poisoning in an animal model but that the combination offers little addition to either therapy alone, however, the combination may be more effective for prevention of cocaine-induced seizures.

Cocaine toxicity: concurrent influence of dopaminergic, muscarinic and sigma receptors in mediating cocaine-induced lethality

The present results demonstrate that pharmacological manipulations of these predicted neurotransmitter systems alter the occurrence of cocaine-induced lethality in C57BL/6J mice, and provide converging supportive evidence that the lethal effects of cocaine depend upon concurrent interactions with dopaminergic, muscarinic M1 and sigma receptor sites.

Cocaine-induced seizures and lethality appear to be associated with distinct central nervous system binding sites.

  • M. C. RitzF. George
  • Biology, Psychology
    The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics
  • 1993
The findings suggest that, although seizure initiation may depend primarily on affinity of cocaine and related compounds for binding sites associated with the serotonin transporter, the seizure-inducing properties of cocaine may ultimately depend on a final summation of its effects not only on serotonergic systems, but on muscarinic and sigma neuronal systems as well.

Cocaine-induced convulsions: pharmacological antagonism at serotonergic, muscarinic and sigma receptors

Of the CNS binding sites with which cocaine is known to interact, the results are consistent with the conclusion that 5-HT transporters and5-HT2 receptor sites appear to be direct and primary sites related to cocaine-induced convulsions, while M1 and sigma binding sites seem to play important but secondary and modulatory roles in this response.

Antagonism of cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine toxicity

Cardiovascular disorders associated with cocaine use: myths and truths.

  • M. Knuepfer
  • Biology, Psychology
    Pharmacology & therapeutics
  • 2003

Risperidone compared with new and reference antipsychotic drugs: in vitro and in vivo receptor binding

Risperidone and its active metabolite 9-OH-risperidone were compared to reference antipsychotic drugs (haloperidol, pipamperone, fluspirilene, clozapine, zotepine) and compounds under development