The role of complementary and alternative medicine in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
- Eugenia Chan
- Journal of developmental and behavioral…
N = 1 withdrawal designs were employed with three children evidencing activity-level problems. Tutoring sessions occurred daily over a 2 1/2-month period. Each child was reinforced for decreasing frontalis muscle tension during auditory feedback while working arithmetic problems. Feedback was faded while tension reduction reinforcement was maintained. These procedures were repeated with reinforcement for increasing, rather than decreasing, muscle tension. Frontal EMG level, percent time on task, and motoric activity rate were obtained during sessions. Parent ratings of problem behavior in the home were recorded daily. Biofeedback with reinforcement was effective in both raising and lowering muscle tension. Effects were maintained by reinforcement. Results suggest a direct relationship between tension and activity levels. Academic performance and problem behavior improved significantly with reductions in EMG activity, although individual exceptions to these findings were present. Results lend support to the efficacy of frontal EMG biofeedback training in reducing activity, increasing attention to an academic task, and reducing problem behaviors.