The effect of distastefulness of the model on the predation of artificial batesian mimics

@article{Goodale1977TheEO,
  title={The effect of distastefulness of the model on the predation of artificial batesian mimics},
  author={Mark Goodale and I. A. Sneddon},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1977},
  volume={25},
  pages={660-665}
}

Imperfect Batesian mimicry—the effects of the frequency and the distastefulness of the model

The experiment supports the most classical predictions in the theories of the origin and maintenance of Batesian mimicry: Batesian mimics gain most when the models outnumber them and the models survived significantly better the more distasteful they were.

Aversive conditioning in a model-mimic system

The Evolution of Gregariousness in Distasteful Insects as a Defense Against Predators

A model is developed in which the risk of detection in relation to group size and the degree of prey distastefulness and aposematic coloration are varied, both of which affect the number of prey a predator samples during avoidance learning.

How Did the Cuckoo Get Its Polymorphic Plumage?

On page 578 of this issue, Thorogood and Davies show that Batesian mimicry dynamics also apply to the evolutionary game between cuckoos and their hosts.

Higher survival of an aposematic than of a cryptic form of a distasteful bug

It was concluded that, since the survivorship was 6.4 times higher for the aposematic prey, it could have a detection rate that is correspondingly higher than the cryptic in order for the two forms to have equal fitness.

The evolution of imperfect mimicry in hoverflies

Hoverfly mimics fall into three major groups according to their models, involving bumblebees, honeybees and social wasps, with polymorphic and accurate forms being a key feature of mimics of the least noxious models, while highlyNoxious models have poor-quality mimicry.

DIFFERENTIAL AVOIDANCE OF CORAL SNAKE BANDED PATTERNS BY FREE‐RANGING AVIAN PREDATORS IN COSTA RICA

  • E. Brodie
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1993
Direct field evidence is provided that coral snake banded patterns are avoided by free‐ranging avian predators and supports theoretical predictions about mimicry systems involving deadly models.

Do aposematism and Batesian mimicry require bright colours? A test, using European viper markings

Analysis of avian attacks on plasticine snake models in the field shows that models bearing the characteristic zigzag band of the adder are attacked significantly less frequently than plain models, suggesting that predator avoidance of inconspicuously but characteristically patterned noxious prey is possible.

THE EFFECT OF ALTERNATIVE PREY ON THE DYNAMICS OF IMPERFECT BATESIAN AND MÜLLERIAN MIMICRIES

This experiment suggests that the availability of alternative prey affects the dynamics of both Müllerian and Batesian mimicry, but in different ways.

Relationship between model noxiousness and mimetic accuracy in myrmecomorphic spiders

A tests the relaxed selection hypothesis, which postulates that the level of mimetic resemblance avoided by predators is context-dependent, and finds a negative correlation between model noxiousness and mimetic accuracy.
...

References

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Sensory discrimination and its role in the evolution of Batesian mimicry.

The conditions of Batesian mimicry have been simulated in a laboratory experiment in which chickens represented the predators and green-coloured drinking solutions their "prey", and the number of times any solution was drunk was dependent on the shock level always received by the bird when it drank the darkest solution.

Behavioural evidence on the evolution of batesian mimicry

Experiments On Mimicry: I. the Response of Wild Birds To Artificial Prey

Wild birds behave in a way which could maintain Batesian mimicry and promote its gradual evolution in their natural prey, and is thought to indicate, but not prove, that the birds 'generalise' (desist somewhat from eating even the poor mimics).

Experiments On Mimicry: Ii. the Effect of a Batesian Mimic On Its Model

The blue prey, acting as a Batesian model, is shown to suffer increased predation as a result of the predators' confusing it with its mimic.

PREDATOR RESPONSES TO ARTIFICIAL BATESIAN MIMICS RELEASED IN A NEOTROPICAL ENVIRONMENT

The main points of mimicry theory are that certain insects are unpalatable and advertise this by bright coloration and conspicuous behavior, and that vertebrate predators learn to associate these warning features of the insects with their unpalatability and thereafter avoid them on sight alone.

Experimental Studies of Mimicry. 5. The Reactions of Toads (Bufo terrestris) to Bumblebees (Bombus americanorum) and Their Robberfly Mimics (Mallophora bomboides), with a Discussion of Aggressive Mimicry

It is concluded that the selective basis for the resemblance of bees by flies, in addition to being Batesian mimicry, may in part also be the visual selection resulting from the defensive behavior of the models towards the mimics which attack them.

Experimental Studies of Artificial Batesian Mimics

Using the lizard, Anolis carolinensis, as a predator, one can determine which of the Batesian mimics will escape predation, and when tested together with unmarked Tenebrio, only the mimics marked with both the prothorax and elytra escape some predation.

On the generality of the laws of learning

A review of data from the traditional learning paradigms shows that the assumption of equivalent associability is false: in classical conditioning, rats are prepared to associate tastes with illness even over very long delays of reinforcement, but are contraprepared to associated tastes with footshock.

Continuous and quantal theories of sensory discrimination

There is, at present, no evidence for the existence of a genuine sensory quantum, but it is demonstrated that, as predicted theoretically, the appearance of quanta can be introduced into the experimental results by the use of techniques which permit information loss.

Relation of cue to consequence in avoidance learning

An audiovisual stimulus was made contingent upon the rat’s licking at the water spout, thus making it analogous with a gustatory stimulus, which apparently stimuli are selected as cues dependent upon the nature of the subsequent reinforcer.