Comparison of Delayed and Immediate Implant Loading Protocols: A Literature Review
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of smoking habits and other possibly relevant factors on dental implant survival. The study population included all patients who underwent dental implants between the years 1999 and 2008 at a large military dental clinic and were examined in the periodic medical examination center. Correlation between implant characteristics and patients' smoking habits, as mentioned in the questionnaire answered by patients in the periodic examination, was performed. Besides standard statistical methods, multiple linear regression models were constructed for estimation of the relative influence of some factors on implant survival rate. The long-term results of the implant treatment were good. The study refers to 7,680 implants. 7,359 (95.8%) survived and 321 (4.2%) did not survive. Concerning smoking habits, in a uni-variable analysis, factors found to have an association with implant survival were the smoking status of the patients (smoking/no smoking), the amount of smoking, passive smoking, and the time elapsed in ex-smokers from the time they ceased smoking to the time of implantation. In a multi-variable analysis, factors found to have an association with implant survival were smoking status (smoking/no smoking) and amounts of smoking as expressed in pack years.