The effect of 'Schreckstoff' on the shoaling behaviour of the minnow: a test of Hamilton's selfish herd theory

@article{Krause1993TheEO,
  title={The effect of 'Schreckstoff' on the shoaling behaviour of the minnow: a test of Hamilton's selfish herd theory},
  author={Jens Krause},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
  year={1993},
  volume={45},
  pages={1019-1024}
}
  • J. Krause
  • Published 1 May 1993
  • Environmental Science
  • Animal Behaviour
Abstract Abstract. According to Hamilton's selfish herd theory, per capita predation risk is lower in the centre than on the periphery of a group. If this is so, it should influence the positioning behaviour of individuals in groups. Most cyprinid fishes live in shoals and respond to Schreckstoff, a fright substance located in the skin, by forming tight shoals. Fourteen dace, Leuciscus leuciscus , habituated to Schreckstoff and a single naive minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus , were combined in order… 
Disentangling the effects of group size and density on shoaling decisions of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
Many animals live in groups most of their life. One function of this behaviour is an increased predator protection whereas larger groups provide better protection than smaller ones. A causal
Disentangling the effects of group size and density on shoaling decisions of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
TLDR
The results show that shoaling preferences might not always be influenced by a higher number of group members but also by the density and cohesiveness of the respective groups.
Dynamics of fish shoals: identifying key decision rules
TLDR
By tracking the movements of individual fish over time, this work finds evidence for both attraction and repulsion zones in fish shoaling, and three other novel features emerge as well.
The influence of food competition and predation risk on size-assortative shoaling in juvenile chub (Leuciscus cephalus)
TLDR
Results indicate that predation plays a more important role than food competition for size-assortative shoaling in chub and makes it difficult to predict stable combinations of different phenotypes when foragers divide between food patches.
The effect of hunger on the exploratory behaviour of shoals of mosquitofish Gambusia holbrooki
TLDR
It is found that hungry individuals in Shoals moved at greater speeds and had higher turning speeds than satiated individuals in shoals, as well as a greater variance in speed and turning speeds, which has implications for models of search patterns and collective movement.
The relationship between foraging and shoal position in a mixed shoal of roach (Rutilus rutilus) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus): a field study
TLDR
Feeding rates of mixed shoals of juvenile roach and chub were observed in a shallow stream near Cambridge (UK) and individuals from the starved group occupied front positions significantly more often than well-fed fish, but after 2 days this difference disappeared.
Competition, predation risk and patterns of flock expansion in barnacle geese ( Branta leucopsis )
TLDR
Upon arrival, flocks maintain a tight defensive formation with high vigilance, but with increasing residence time, vigilance decreases and larger flocks expand, suggesting a need for individuals to reduce feeding competition.
Sex and the selfish herd: sexual segregation within nonmating whirligig groups
TLDR
This is one of the first studies to show that sex influences position of individuals within simple nonmating groups (congregations) and suggests that more attention should be given to positional sex differences within shoals, flocks, herds, and swarms.
Mortality risk of spatial positions in animal groups: The danger of being in the front
We modified Hamilton's (1971) selfish herd model by introducing directional movement to the prey groups and the predators. The consequences of this modification with regards to differential predation
...
1
2
3
4
5
...