The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights

@article{Scheuhammer1996TheEO,
  title={The ecotoxicology of lead shot and lead fishing weights},
  author={Anton Michael Scheuhammer and Stacey L. Norris},
  journal={Ecotoxicology},
  year={1996},
  volume={5},
  pages={279-295}
}
Lead shot ingestion is the primary source of elevated lead exposure and poisoning in waterfowl and most other bird species. For some species (e.g. Common Loons, Gavia immer), lead sinker ingestion is a more frequent cause of lead poisoning. In freshwater environments where recreational angling activity and loon populations co-occur, lead poisoning from ingestion of small (<50 gram) lead sinkers or jigs accounts for 10–50% of recorded adult loon mortality, depending on the locations studied… Expand
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—Lead poisoning mortality, through the ingestion of spent shot, is long established in waterfowl, and more recently in raptors and other avian taxa. Raptors (vultures, hawks, falcons, eagles andExpand
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Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: A significant threat for human consumers
TLDR
The consumption of a single liver from any waterfowl shot in Spain may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead, which is the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Expand
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TLDR
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Lead shot ingestion in two raptor species from Doñana, Spain.
TLDR
Pb shot found in pellets exhibited signs of erosion, and their weight distribution had peaks at 70, 170, and 240 mg, which could correspond to ammunition used for duck and goose hunting. Expand
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Poisoning from lead shot in waterbirds has been well documented globally and, in some countries, legislation exists to combat lead toxicosis at wetlands and/or in waterbirds. However, poisoning ofExpand
Ingested Shot and Tissue Lead Concentrations in Mourning Doves
TLDR
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Poisoning of birds and other wildlife from ammunition-derived lead in the UK
Lead is toxic to animals and thousands of tonnes of lead ammunition, primarily gunshot, are deposited and accumulate in the UK environment annually. Lead derived from ammunition now appears to be theExpand
Lead poisoning of passerines at a trap and skeet range.
TLDR
Results showed that most shot were found in the top 3 cm of soil and lead measurements ranged from 110 to 27,000 ppm (dry wt) in soil and were 660 and 840 ppm in earthworms. Expand
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