The ecology and evolution of fly dispersed dung mosses (Family Splachnaceae): Manipulating insect behaviour through odour and visual cues

  title={The ecology and evolution of fly dispersed dung mosses (Family Splachnaceae): Manipulating insect behaviour through odour and visual cues},
  author={Paul C. Marino and Robert A. Raguso and Bernard Goffinet},
The use of sensory attractants is central to most animal-mediated pollination and seed dispersal interactions. Approximately half the 73 species of mosses’ in the family Splachnaceae are entomophilous (have their spores dispersed by flies) and are coprophilous (grow on feces and carrion). When mature, entomophilous species often produce brightly coloured, scented sporophytes which, for several species, have been shown to attract flies. In a number of cases, sporophyte colours and odours, as… 

Dung mimicry: the function of volatile emissions and corolla patterning in fly-pollinated Wurmbea flowers.

This study clarifies the roles of volatile emissions (particularly skatole) and visual signals in floral dung mimicry and induced a shift to an insect visitor assemblage dominated by coprophagous flies.

Evidence for entomophily in “Knothole Moss” (Anacamptodon splachnoides)

Though differing in some respects from the adaptations seen in Splachnaceae, the parallel evolution of sporophytic characters related to entomophily is remarkable.

The Importance of Oligosulfides in the Attraction of Fly Pollinators to the Brood-Site Deceptive Species Jaborosa rotacea (Solanaceae)

The hypothesis that oligosulfides are universally effective signals by which deceptive flowers may effect pollen dispersal by attracting flies that use carrion or carnivore feces as brood sites is supported.

Forest passerines as a novel dispersal vector of viable bryophyte propagules

It is suggested that a variety of forest birds exhibit the potential to act as dispersal vectors for bryophyte propagules, including an abundance of spores, and that understanding the effects of animal behaviour on brysophyte dispersal will be key to further understanding this interaction.

Investigations in Tayloria mirabilis spore dispersal via insect in Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile

This study tested whether flies are acting as vectors of spore dispersal for T. mirabilis, a moss endemic to the southern temperate rainforests of South America, which has similar morphological and chemical traits as those who use flies for dispersal but spore dispersed by fly has never been documented in the southern hemisphere.

Contrasting Volatilomes of Livestock Dung Drive Preference of the Dung Beetle Bubas bison (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

Results from a third study evaluating electroantennogram response and supplementary olfactometry provided strong evidence that indole, butyric acid, butanone, p-cresol, skatole, and phenol are involved in the attraction of B. bison to dung, with a mixture of these components significantly more attractive than individual constituents.

Structural changes in plastids of developing Splachnum ampullaceum sporophytes and relationship to odour production.

Over 50 volatile organic compounds from mature sporophytes are identified including short-chain oxygenated compounds, unsaturated irregular terpenoids, fatty acid-derived 6- and 8-carbon alcohols and ketones, and the aromatic compounds acetophenone and p-cresol, showing localised production of pungent volatiles.

Pollination by brood-site deception.

Succession of Dung-Inhabiting Beetles and Flies Reflects the Succession of Dung-Emitted Volatile Compounds

This work focused on the temporal succession of volatiles released by cow dung pats and the potential influence on dung-inhabiting insects, and detected 54 VOCs which could be assigned to two successional groups, with chemical turnover in dung changing around day 2.



Flies and flowers: taxonomic diversity of anthophiles and pollinators

Abstract The Diptera are the second most important order among flower-visiting (anthophilous) and flower-pollinating insects worldwide. Their taxonomic diversity ranges from Nematocera to Brachycera,


SUMMARY (1) Three mechanisms that may promote the coexistence of the boreal mosses Tetraplodon angustatus, T. mnioides, S. ampullaceum and S. luteum (Splachnaceae) have been examined: differences

Floral Conservatism in Neotropical Malpighiaceae

  • R.
  • Environmental Science
  • 2007
Over 950 species of Malpighiaceae grow in a variety of neotropical habitats and have evolved great diversity in habit, fruit, pollen, and chromosome number. Their flowers, in contrast, tend to be

The chemical nature of fetid floral odours in stapeliads (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae-Ceropegieae).

Considering the findings in the unrelated Araceae, the results support the universality of different mimicry types that are obviously subsumed under the sapromyiophilous syndrome.

Substrate restriction in entomophilous Splachnaceae: role of spore dispersal

Insect-mediated spore dispersal was quantified for Splachnaceae colonies and indicated that insects were attracted, that spores were transported, and that Pyrellia cyani- color Zett.

Phylogenetic inferences in the dung-moss family Splachnaceae from analyses of cpDNA sequence data and implications for the evolution of entomophily.

Reconstruction of shifts between wind and insect spore dispersal syndromes suggests that entomophily arose more than once and may have been followed by a reversal to the generalist strategy in two lineages.

Endothermy by flowers of Rhizanthes lowii (Rafflesiaceae)

Evidence of both thermogenesis and thermoregulation in R. lowii is presented from microclimate and tissue temperatures measured during different stages of flower development in R .

Entomophily in the Splachnaceae

Cultivation experiments indicate that protonema and shoots of Splachnum sphaericum have a greater tolerance for concentrated dung liquid than the control species Physcomitrium pyrij'orme, Funaria hygrometrica and Pohlia nutans.

Floral Scent Emission and Pollination Syndromes: Evolutionary Changes from Food to Sexual Deception

Caladenia longicauda emitted more scent than C. arenicola, both in absolute amount and in number of compounds, and the patterns of floral odor emission are discussed in relation to the evolution of pollination syndromes.

The ecology of oil flowers and their bees

A new area of research in pollination ecology arose in 1969 when Stefan Vogel described a hitherto unrecognized "floral syndrome" when plants in many genera of five families were confirmed as having highly specialized oil-secreting organs.