The earth is round (p < .05)

@article{Cohen1994TheEI,
  title={The earth is round (p < .05)},
  author={Jacob Cohen},
  journal={American Psychologist},
  year={1994},
  volume={49},
  pages={997-1003}
}
  • Jacob Cohen
  • Published 1 December 1994
  • Psychology
  • American Psychologist
After 4 decades of severe criticism, the ritual of null hypothesis significance testing (mechanical dichotomous decisions around a sacred .05 criterion) still persists. This article reviews the problems with this practice, including near universal misinterpretation of p as the probability that H₀ is false, the misinterpretation that its complement is the probability of successful replication, and the mistaken assumption that if one rejects H₀ one thereby affirms the theory that led to the test… 
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Sherlock Holmes and the Death of the Null Hypothesis
In the eighty years since R.A. Fisher’s original work, null hypothesis significance testing has become the ubiquitous research methodology in fields as diverse as biology, agronomy, social science,
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