The earliest holometabolous insect from the Carboniferous: a “crucial” innovation with delayed success (Insecta Protomeropina Protomeropidae)

  title={The earliest holometabolous insect from the Carboniferous: a “crucial” innovation with delayed success (Insecta Protomeropina Protomeropidae)},
  author={Andr{\'e} Nel and Patrick Roques and Patricia Nel and Jakub Prokop and Jean-S{\'e}bastien Steyer},
  journal={Annales de la Soci{\'e}t{\'e} entomologique de France (N.S.)},
  pages={349 - 355}
  • A. Nel, P. Roques, J. Steyer
  • Published 1 January 2007
  • Geography
  • Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.)
Abstract Insects dominate Earth by their diversity, and the most are Holometabola. Therefore, the holometabolous development characterised by a pupal stage between larvae and adult seems to be linked with the extensive radiation of insects. Holometaboly is suspected to appear in the carboniferous period, however until now fossils have not brought univocal evidence. The discovery in the Carboniferous (Early Langsettian, circa 310 mya, Bashkirian Stage) of France of the earliest Holometabola… 

Evidence for an Earliest Late Carboniferous Divergence Time and the Early Larval Ecology and Diversification of Major Holometabola Lineages

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The Earliest Beetle Identified

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Evolution of the elytral venation and structural adaptations in the oldest Palaeozoic beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tshekardocoleidae)

The oldest definitive beetle, Coleopsis archaica gen. et sp. nov., is described from the earliest Permian (Asselian or early Sakmarian) of Germany (Grügelborn/Saarland). Its elytral venation is

New non-holometabolous insects from the Pennsylvanian of the Avion locality in Pas-de-Calais, France (Insecta: ‘Exopterygota’)

These new fossils demonstrate that the insect fauna from the Pas-de-Calais Basin was highly diverse with links to Bashkirian/Moscovian assemblages in Euramerica, such as the Mazon Creek entomofauna.

The smallest Neoptera (Baryshnyalidae fam. n.) from Hagen-Vorhalle (early Late Carboniferous: Namurian B; Germany)

A new small species from early Late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) deposits in Hagen-Vorhalle differs in its unique venation pattern and small size from all other Neoptera known from this Lagerstätte and other contemporaneous locations worldwide.

Life habits, hox genes, and affinities of a 311 million-year-old holometabolan larva

Srokalarva berthei bore head and prothoracic structures, leglet series on successive abdominal segments – in addition to comparable features on a second taxon eight million-years-younger – that indicates Hox-gene regulation of segmental and appendage patterning among earliest Holometabola.

New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

Single-copy nuclear genes resolve the phylogeny of the holometabolous insects

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A Carboniferous insect gall: insight into early ecologic history of the Holometabola.

  • C. LabandeiraT. Phillips
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
It is shown that before the demise of Pennsylvanian age coal-swamp forests, a highly stereotyped life cycle was already established between an insect that was consuming internal plant tissue and a vascular plant host responding to that herbivory.

An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks.

The study defines a robust nucleotide and amino acid mitochondrial molecular clock encompassing five insect orders, including the Blattaria, and explores Tilyard's theory proposing that the terrestrial transition of the aquatic arthropod ancestor to the insects is associated with a particular plant group (early vascular plants).

Endopterygote systematics – where do we stand and what is the goal (Hexapoda, Arthropoda)?

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Lower Permian "mecopteroid-like" insects from central Europe (Insecta, Endopterygota)

Five new genera and eight new species of endopterygote insects are described from Lower Permian strata from Moravia, Czechoslovakia, and may be the earliest known member of Amphiesmenoptera.

Relationships among coleopteran suborders and major endoneopteran lineages: Evidence from hind wing characters

A phylogenetic analysis of the four coleopteran suborders, four other endoneopteran taxa and three neopteran outgroups is performed, and the special role and influence of the hind wing anojugal lobe on the diversification of Neoptera and Endoneoptera is discussed.

Advances and problems in insect phylogeny

The insects were one of the first groups whose relationships were investigated using the theory and methods of phylogenetic systematics and the cladogram shows numerous doubtful or weakly supported sister group relationships.

Evidence of herbivory in tree-fern petioles from the Calhoun Coal (Upper Pennsylvanian) of Illinois

Evidence that certain coprolites were produced by a highly specific kind of herbivore is presented in Pennsylvanian-age coal balls of Psaronius chasei.

The delayed rise of present-day mammals

The results show that the phylogenetic ‘fuses’ leading to the explosion of extant placental orders are not only very much longer than suspected previously, but also challenge the hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event had a major, direct influence on the diversification of today’s mammals.