The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe

@article{Higham2011TheEE,
  title={The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe},
  author={Thomas F.G. Higham and Tim Compton and Chris B Stringer and Roger M. Jacobi and Beth Shapiro and Erik Trinkaus and Barry Chandler and Flora Gr{\"o}ning and Chris Collins and Simon Hillson and Paul O’Higgins and Charles Fitzgerald and Michael J. Fagan},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2011},
  volume={479},
  pages={521-524}
}
The earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe are thought to have appeared around 43,000–42,000 calendar years before present (43–42 kyr cal bp), by association with Aurignacian sites and lithic assemblages assumed to have been made by modern humans rather than by Neanderthals. However, the actual physical evidence for modern humans is extremely rare, and direct dates reach no farther back than about 41–39 kyr cal bp, leaving a gap. Here we show, using stratigraphic, chronological and… 

Palaeoanthropology: The earliest modern humans in Europe

TLDR
It is concluded that the Uluzzian culture of southern Europe — always found stratigraphically below the Aurignacian signature culture of the modern humans — may represent the earliest modern humans in Europe rather than the last Neanderthals.

The earliest modern humans outside Africa

TLDR
A maxilla and associated dentition recently discovered at Misliya Cave, Israel, was dated to 177,000 to 194,000 years ago, suggesting that members of the Homo sapiens clade left Africa earlier than previously thought.

An early Aurignacian arrival in southwestern Europe

TLDR
New 43–45 ka dates for stone tool assemblages associated with anatomically modern humans (AMHs) at the southern Spanish site of Bajondillo suggest an early AMH incursion and weaken the case for late Neanderthal persistence in the region.

Ancient Digs and Modern Myths: The Age and Context of the Kent's Cavern 4 Maxilla and the Earliest Homo sapiens Specimens in Europe

Recent anatomical analyses of a human maxilla found in 1927 in the Vestibule at Kent's Cavern, Devon, UK, have been interpreted as confirming its taxonomic status as Homo sapiens, while Bayesian

The modern human colonization of western Eurasia: When and where?

  • J. Hublin
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2015

Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia

TLDR
Using ultrafiltration to purify faunal bone collagen before radiocarbon dating, ages at least 10 ka 14C years older are obtained, close to or beyond the limit of the radiOCarbon method for the Mousterian at Jarama VI and Neanderthal fossils at Zafarraya.

Direct Radiocarbon Dating of Late Pleistocene Hominids in Eurasia: Current Status, Problems, and Perspectives

The corpus of radiocarbon dates run directly on Pleistocene-age human remains in Eurasia (∼120 values, with ∼80 of them found to be reliable) is analyzed and interpreted. The latest Neanderthals are

Early modern human settlement of Europe north of the Alps occurred 43,500 years ago in a cold steppe-type environment

TLDR
It is concluded that modern humans producing Aurignacian stone tools occupied Central Europe about 43,500 years ago in a medium-cold steppe environment with some boreal trees along valleys and that the AH 3 assemblage overlaps with the latest directly radiocarbon-dated Neanderthal remains, suggesting that Neanderthal and modern human presence overlapped in Europe for some millennia.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES

The Oldest Anatomically Modern Humans from Far Southeast Europe: Direct Dating, Culture and Behavior

TLDR
The direct-dating results of human bone establish a secure presence of AMHs at 31,900+240/−220 BP in this region, which are the oldest direct evidence of the presence ofAMHs in a well documented archeological context.

A NEW DIRECT RADIOCARBON AMS DATE FOR AN UPPER PALAEOLITHIC HUMAN BONE FROM SIBERIA

A new AMS radiocarbon date has been obtained from a Siberian human bone sample taken directly from a cranial fragment. The specimen comes from the north-east Siberian site of Pokrovka 2

European early modern humans and the fate of the Neandertals

  • E. Trinkaus
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2007
TLDR
The ubiquitous and variable presence of these morphological features in the European earlier modern human samples can only be parsimoniously explained as a product of modest levels of assimilation of Neandertals into early modern human populations as the latter dispersed across Europe.

An early modern human from the Peştera cu Oase, Romania

TLDR
The Oase 1 mandible presents a mosaic of archaic, early modern human and possibly Neandertal morphological features, emphasizing both the complex population dynamics of modern human dispersal into Europe and the subsequent morphological evolution of European early modern humans.

The Chronology and Taphonomy of the Earliest Aurignacian and Its Implications for the Understanding of Neandertal Extinction

The view that the Châtelperronian is the acculturation of late Neandertals brought about by contact with nearby moderns assumes an age of ca. 40,000 years ago for the earliest Aurignacian. However,

The Human Cranium from the Peştera Cioclovina Uscată, Romania

Reanalysis and direct dating of an early modern human neurocranium from the Peştera Cioclovina Uscată (Cioclovina 1), in combination with excavation and reanalysis of the remaining deposits in the

Pleistocene depositional history in a periglacial terrane: A 500 k.y. record from Kents Cavern, Devon, United Kingdom

The signifi cance of the stratigraphic record in Kents Cavern, Devon, United Kingdom, to the interpretation of the British Quaternary is confi rmed on the basis of a thorough reexamination of the

AMS radiocarbon dating of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic bone in the British Isles: improved reliability using ultrafiltration

Recent research at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU) has shown that ultrafiltration of gelatin from archaeological bone can, in many instances, remove low molecular weight contaminants.

A Collection of Early Upper Palaeolithic Artefacts from Beedings, near Pulborough, West Sussex, and the Context of Similar Finds from the British Isles

This paper provides a first formal description of a collection of lithic artefacts unearthed during the building of a house called Beedings on a scarp crest near Pulborough in West Sussex.The

Early modern humans from the Peştera Muierii, Baia de Fier, Romania

TLDR
The early modern human remains from the Peştera Muierii, Romania have been directly dated to ≈30,000 radiocarbon years before present and a small sample of securely dated, European, pre-28 ka 14C BPModern human remains augment and indicate considerable Neandertal/modern human admixture.