The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes

  title={The earliest angiosperms: evidence from mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear genomes},
  author={Yin Long Qiu and Jungho Lee and Fabiana Bernasconi-Quadroni and Douglas E. Soltis and Pamela S. Soltis and Michael J. Zanis and Elizabeth A. Zimmer and Zhiduan Chen and Vincent Savolainen and Mark W. Chase},
Angiosperms have dominated the Earth's vegetation since the mid-Cretaceous (90 million years ago), providing much of our food, fibre, medicine and timber, yet their origin and early evolution have remained enigmatic for over a century. One part of the enigma lies in the difficulty of identifying the earliest angiosperms; the other involves the uncertainty regarding the sister group of angiosperms among extant and fossil gymnosperms. Here we report a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of… 
Origin of angiosperms and the puzzle of the Jurassic gap
A study reconstructed angiosperm phylogeny on the basis of plastome data representing 2,351 angiosperm and 187 gymnosperm species, and dated the origin of crown angiosperms to be significantly earlier than the estimates based on fossil data.
Resolution of deep angiosperm phylogeny using conserved nuclear genes and estimates of early divergence times
The molecular clock estimates of Mesangiospermae diversification during the late to middle Jurassic correspond well to the origins of some insects, which may have been a factor facilitating early angiosperm radiation.
Phylogenetic Analyses of Basal Angiosperms Based on Nine Plastid, Mitochondrial, and Nuclear Genes
This study indicates caution in total evidence approaches in that some of the genes employed added signal that conflicted with the other genes in resolving certain parts of the phylogenetic tree.
Phylogeny of Basal Angiosperms: Analyses of Five Genes from Three Genomes1
The standard most parsimonious trees search, taxon deletion analyses, and constraint analyses in combination with Kishino‐Hasegawa tests provided a rigorous analytical perspective for identifying Amborella, Nymphaeales, and Illiciales‐Trimeniaceae‐Austrobaileya (ANITA) as the basalmost lineages of extant angiosperms.
The chloroplast genome of Nymphaea alba: whole-genome analyses and the problem of identifying the most basal angiosperm.
Phylogenetic analyses of the chloroplast DNA of Nymphaea alba revealed consistent support for Nympholia being a divergent member of a monophyletic dicot assemblage and observations suggesting that the monocot lineage leading to the grasses has the strongest phylogenetic affinity to gymnosperms have general implications for studies of substitution model specification and analyses of concatenated genome data.
Prickly waterlily and rigid hornwort genomes shed light on early angiosperm evolution
These genomes help to elucidate relationships among the major subclades within Mesangiospermae, which contain about 350,000 species and confirm that Amborella and Nymphaeales are successively sister to all other angiosperms.
The origin and diversification of angiosperms.
The angiosperms, one of five groups of extant seed plants, are the largest group of land plants. Despite their relatively recent origin, this clade is extremely diverse morphologically and
Identifying the basal angiosperm node in chloroplast genome phylogenies: sampling one's way out of the Felsenstein zone.
Whereas long sequences reduce variance in branch lengths and molecular dating estimates, the impact of improved taxon sampling on the rooting of the angiosperm phylogeny together with the results of parametric bootstrap analyses demonstrate how long-branch attraction might mislead genome-scale phylogenetic analyses.
Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from sequences of four mitochondrial genes
A mitochondrial gene‐based angiosperm phylogeny is reconstructed in a maximum likelihood analysis of sequences of four mitochondrial genes, atp1, matR, nad5, and rps3 from 380 species that represent 376 genera and 296 families of seed plants to reconstruct the underlying organismal phylogeny.
Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants
It is shown that there are three monophyletic groups of extant vascular plants: (1) lycophytes, (2) seed plants and (3) a clade including equisetophytes (horsetails, psilotophytes) and all eusporangiate and leptosporangiates ferns.


Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from multiple genes as a tool for comparative biology
The results of parsimony analyses of DNA sequences of the plastid genes rbcL and atpB and the nuclear 18S rDNA for 560 species of angiosperms and seven non-flowering seed plants are reported and show a well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic tree for the angios perms for use in comparative biology.
Phylogeny of early land plants: insights from genes and genomes.
  • Qiu, Palmer
  • Biology
    Trends in plant science
  • 1999
The root of angiosperm phylogeny inferred from duplicate phytochrome genes.
An analysis of duplicate phytochrome genes (PHYA and PHYC) is used to root the angiosperms, thereby avoiding the inclusion of highly diverged outgroup sequences, and unambiguously place the root near Amborella and resolve water lilies as early branches.
Phylogenetics of seed plants : An analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL
Two exploratory parsimony analyses of DNA sequences from 475 and 499 species of seed plants, respectively, representing all major taxonomic groups indicate that rbcL sequence variation contains historical evidence appropriate for phylogenetic analysis at this taxonomic level of sampling.
On the Origin of Angiosperms.
Gnetales and Angiosperms.-Last year ARBER and PARKIN announced'4 their "strobilus theory of angiospermous descent;" and now they have applied it to the interpretation of the relationships of
The origin and early diversification of angiosperms
New palaeobotanical discoveries and phylogenetic analyses of morphological and molecular data have clarified the initial phases of this radiation and changed the perspective on early angiosperm evolution, though important issues remain unresolved.
Molecular Phylogenetics of the Magnoliidae: Cladistic Analyses of Nucleotide Sequences of the Plastid Gene rbcL
Six magnoliids formed five major groups, roughly corresponding to the Magnoliales, Laurales, Aristolochiaceae/Piperales, Nymphaeales, and Ranunculales/Papaverales; Ceratophyllum (CeratophyLLaceae) was found to be sister to all other angiosperms.
An Aptian Plant with Attached Leaves and Flowers: Implications for Angiosperm Origin
A variety of data suggests a similar morphology for the ancestral angiosperm, which explains similarities between rhizomatous to herbaceous Magnoliidae and basal monocots, scarcity of early agniosperm wood, and lack of recognition of earlier remains.
In search of the first flower: A jurassic angiosperm, archaefructus, from northeast china
Angiosperm fruiting axes discovered from the Upper Jurassic of China have primitive characters and characters not considered primitive, and the leaf-like structures subtending each axis define them as flowers.