The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin kappa-opioid system.

@article{Land2008TheDC,
  title={The dysphoric component of stress is encoded by activation of the dynorphin kappa-opioid system.},
  author={Benjamin B. Land and Michael R Bruchas and Julia C. Lemos and Mei Q Xu and Erica J. Melief and Charles Chavkin},
  journal={The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience},
  year={2008},
  volume={28 2},
  pages={407-14}
}
Stress is a complex human experience having both positive and negative motivational properties. When chronic and uncontrollable, the adverse effects of stress on human health are considerable and yet poorly understood. Here, we report that the dysphoric properties of chronic stress are encoded by the endogenous opioid peptide dynorphin acting on specific stress-related neuronal circuits. Using different forms of stress presumed to evoke dysphoria in mice, we found that repeated forced swim and… CONTINUE READING
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