The dose makes the poison: have “field realistic” rates of exposure of bees to neonicotinoid insecticides been overestimated in laboratory studies?

@article{Carreck2014TheDM,
  title={The dose makes the poison: have “field realistic” rates of exposure of bees to neonicotinoid insecticides been overestimated in laboratory studies?},
  author={Norman L. Carreck and Francis L. W. Ratnieks},
  journal={Journal of Apicultural Research},
  year={2014},
  volume={53},
  pages={607 - 614}
}
Summary Recent laboratory based studies have demonstrated adverse sub-lethal effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on honey bees and bumble bees, and these studies have been influential in leading to a European Union moratorium on the use of three neonicotinoids, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam on “bee attractive” crops. Yet so far, these same effects have not been observed in field studies. Here we review the three key dosage factors (concentration, duration and choice) relevant… Expand
The environmental risks of neonicotinoid pesticides: a review of the evidence post 2013
TLDR
A growing body of evidence demonstrates that persistent, low levels of neonicotinoids can have negative impacts on a wide range of free-living organisms. Expand
Review: Have suitable experimental designs been used to determine the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bee colony performance in the field?
TLDR
The challenges and merits of alternative experimental designs are discussed in relation to practical considerations and policy making. Expand
Synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid insecticide and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicide in three bee species.
TLDR
The results underscore the importance to test pesticide combinations likely to occur in agricultural environments, and to include several bee species in environmental risk assessment schemes, after a new approach based on the binomial proportion test to analyse synergistic interactions. Expand
Three years of banning neonicotinoid insecticides based on sub‐lethal effects: can we expect to see effects on bees?
TLDR
It is concluded that declines of wild pollinators and of honeybees are not likely caused by neonicotinoids, and it is not possible on such short term to evaluate the effects of the 2013 EU ban. Expand
Reconciling laboratory and field assessments of neonicotinoid toxicity to honeybees
TLDR
This study reconciles the conflicting laboratory and field toxicity assessments of neonicotinoids on honeybees and further highlights the difficulty in actually detecting non-intentional effects on the field through conventional risk assessment methods. Expand
Chronic exposure to neonicotinoids reduces honey bee health near corn crops
Damage confirmed Early studies of the impacts of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators indicated considerable harm. However, lingering criticism was that the studies did not representExpand
Detrimental interactions of neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and bumblebee immunity
TLDR
Pesticide–immune interactions may enhance negative outcomes of pesticide–pathogen coexposure and could have health consequences for pollinators facing multiple stresses of sublethal neonicotinoid exposure and pathogens. Expand
Field-realistic neonicotinoid exposure has sub-lethal effects on non-Apis bees: A meta-analysis.
TLDR
A meta-analysis to assess whether field-realistic neonicotinoid exposure has sub-lethal effects on non-Apis bees found that it largely consisted of two genera: bumblebees and mason bees (Osmia), highlighting a substantial taxonomic knowledge gap. Expand
Chronic oral exposure to field-realistic pesticide combinations via pollen and nectar: effects on feeding and thermal performance in a solitary bee
TLDR
The incorporation of tests specifically intended to detect sublethal effects in bee risk assessment schemes should be an urgent priority, so that the effects of pesticide exposure on the dynamics of bee populations in agroecosystems will be better assessed. Expand
Is the Water Supply a Key Factor in Stingless Bees’ Intoxication?
TLDR
It is suggested that water may allow avoidance of high dosed food and minimize mortality in stingless bees, because in the field it is common to find extrapolated concentrations. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 84 REFERENCES
Effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide thiamethoxam at field-realistic levels on microcolonies of Bombus terrestris worker bumble bees.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that during an exposure to field-realistic concentrations lasting approximately two weeks, brood production in worker bumble bees is more sensitive to imidacloprid than thiamethoxam, which imposes a greater nutrient limitation on production of brood. Expand
Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment
TLDR
The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Expand
A meta-analysis of experiments testing the effects of a neonicotinoid insecticide (imidacloprid) on honey bees
TLDR
Findings raise renewed concern about the impact on honey bees of dietary imidacloprid, but because questions remain over the environmental relevance of predominantly laboratory-based results, targets for research are identified and procedural recommendations for future studies are provided. Expand
Modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides: estimated amounts of contaminated pollen and nectar consumed by different categories of bees
TLDR
Estimates for modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides by estimating their pollen and nectar consumption are given for larvae and for the categories of adults which consume the highest amounts of - pollen, the nurse bees, and - nectar. Expand
Field realistic doses of pesticide imidacloprid reduce bumblebee pollen foraging efficiency
TLDR
It is demonstrated that field-realistic doses of these pesticides substantially impacts on foraging ability of bumblebee workers when collecting pollen, and it is suggested that this provides a causal mechanism behind reduced queen production in imidacloprid exposed colonies. Expand
Impact of chronic exposure to a pyrethroid pesticide on bumblebees and interactions with a trypanosome parasite
TLDR
Chronic exposure to k-cyhalothrin has a significant impact on worker size, a key aspect of bumblebee colony function, particularly under conditions of limited food resources, which could indicate that under times of resource limitation, colonies exposed to this pesticide in the field may fail. Expand
Will neonicotinoid moratorium save the bees
Most scientists who study bees believe that the longterm declines seen in many species in Europe and North America have been driven by changes in land use, primarily agricultural intensificationExpand
Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid).
TLDR
It is speculated that honey bees are better pre-adapted than bumble bees to feed on nectars containing synthetic alkaloids, such as imidacloprid, by virtue of their ancestral adaptation to tropical nectar in which natural alkaloid are prevalent. Expand
DATA, DATA EVERYWHERE BUT WE DON'T KNOW WHAT TO THINK? NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES AND POLLINATORS
TLDR
Improvements in analytical technology that have substantially reduced detection limits, traces of neonicotinoid insecticides have been found at very low levels in pollen and nectar from commercial fields in several recent studies, resulting in a campaign to ban the use of this group of pesticides in Europe. Expand
Neonicotinoid Pesticide Reduces Bumble Bee Colony Growth and Queen Production
TLDR
Given the scale of use of neonicotinoid insecticides, it is suggested that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...