The diving behaviour of brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from the Falkland Islands: variation in dive profiles and synchronous underwater swimming provide new insights into their foraging strategies

@article{Ptz2005TheDB,
  title={The diving behaviour of brooding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from the Falkland Islands: variation in dive profiles and synchronous underwater swimming provide new insights into their foraging strategies},
  author={Klemens P{\"u}tz and Yves Cherel},
  journal={Marine Biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={147},
  pages={281-290}
}
The diving behaviour of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) was studied on the Falkland Islands, where a small population (ca. 300 fledglings year−1) is located at the geographical limit of their breeding range. King penguins rearing newly hatched chicks were equipped with time-depth recorders before leaving for sea. In total, 20,175 dives >3 m were recorded from 12 birds during 15 foraging trips with a mean duration of 5.7±2.3 days. The majority of the trips was directed up to 500 km to… 

Diving characteristics of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes c. chrysocome) in the southwest Atlantic

The diving behaviour of southern rockhopper penguins was studied at two breeding sites in the Southwest Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and Staten Island, Argentina and was notably similar to that of conspecifics from the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Post-Fledging Dispersal of King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) from Two Breeding Sites in the South Atlantic

Most studies concerning the foraging ecology of marine vertebrates are limited to breeding adults, although other life history stages might comprise half the total population. For penguins, little is

Comparative foraging and diving behaviour of coexisting breeding and non-breeding King Penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) in Tierra del Fuego, Chile

The results indicate that incubating, courting and non-breeding King Penguins, although coexisting temporally at the same colony, differentially adjust their foraging and diving behaviour, most likely to accomplish their specific social and energetic demands.

Breeding patterns of King Penguins on the Falkland Islands

Survival of chicks over winter was high (89%), which may be associated with lower rates of avian predation and less severe weather conditions in the Falkland Islands compared with other breeding sites.

Space use by foraging Galápagos penguins during chick rearing

The Galapagos penguin exploits a maximum volume of water of <1.4 km 3 , which is almost 90 times less than that predicted for its mass, and thus utilises only a small portion of the total potentially available upwelling area within the Galagagos Archipelago.

Fine-scale analyses of diving energetics in king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus: how behaviour affects costs of a foraging dive

The relationship between dive behaviour and foraging success in king penguins may be more obvious than that between diving behaviour and mean heart rate over the dive cycle, at the scale of the individual for- aging dive.

The early life of king penguins: ontogeny of dive capacity and foraging behaviour in an expert diver.

The initially greater wiggle rate suggests that juveniles fed opportunistically and also targeted different prey than adults and/or that many wiggles of juveniles reflect unsuccessful prey-capture attempts, indicating a lower foraging proficiency, while after five months, this difference disappeared, suggesting sufficient physical maturation and improvement of juvenile foraging skills.

Winter foraging site fidelity of king penguins breeding at the Falkland Islands

Assessing foraging site fidelity in king penguins breeding at the Falkland Islands found flexibility in foraging trip distances and durations may be a response to changes in resource availability and changes in the energetic requirements of adults and chicks over an extended breeding cycle.

Departure time influences foraging associations in little penguins

It is revealed that group foraging behaviour occurs at multiple colonies and the pathways these individuals traverse with conspecifics may facilitate opportunistic group formation and resulting in foraging associations irrespective of nesting proximity and other factors.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES

FORAGING STRATEGY OF KING PENGUINS (APTENODYTES PATAGONICUS) DURING SUMMER AT THE CROZET ISLANDS

The foraging ecology of King Penguins at Pos- session Island, Crozet Archipelago, was studied between January and March 1993 and between February and March 1994, with a clear diurnal pattern and the highest amounts ingested during the central and penultimate days of the foraging trip.

Foraging strategies of incubating and brooding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus

It is suggested that it is more efficient for parents to change their diving patterns rather than to restrict their foraging range as chick provisioning limits trip duration.

Seasonal changes in the diving parameters of king penguins (Aptenodytespatagonicus)

The time budget of the penguins during diving in a fluctuating environment appears to vary primarily during the bottom phase of the dives, with bottom duration increasing with diminishing prey supplies, while post-dive intervals shorten in the same time.

Diving Behavior and Energetics During Foraging Cycles in King Penguins

It was concluded that deep—diving, for unknown reasons, is an important component of foraging success, and diving capacities of King Penguins are remarkable compared to other birds and many pinnipeds, and calculated foraging energetics can be closely estimated from time—energy budgets.

Satellite tracking of male rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome during the incubation period at the Falkland Islands

The consistent foraging patterns exhibited during the long trips may be linked to the Falklands current, allowing the penguins to reach remote areas while reducing their energy expenditure.

Synchronous Underwater Foraging Behavior in Penguins

Electronic time-depth recorders used to examine the synchronous foraging behavior of penguins both at the surface and underwater indicate that the penguins were visually in contact during the dives and suggests a coordinated underwater behavior to search and catch prey.

Diving behaviour and foraging location of female southern elephant seals from Patagonia

The diving pattern of females from Patagonia is similar to that of seals from colonies where numbers are decreasing (Macquarie stock) or are stable (South Georgia Island).

Seasonal change in foraging areas and dive depths of breeding king penguins at Heard Island

Associated with changes in foraging location and dive behaviour was a change in diet composition: during summer the penguins ingested mainly myctophid fish while in winter the most important diet item was squid.

Diving behaviour of gentoo penguins,Pygoscelis papua; factors keeping dive profiles in shape

Development of a model based on simple probability theory indicated that the optimal dive profile to maximize the chances of prey acquisition depends on vertical prey distribution and on the visual capabilities of the birds with respect to descent and ascent angles.

Foraging habitat and food intake of satellite-tracked king penguins during the austral summer at Crozet Archipelago

The foraging strategy of king penguins during the summer favors displacements toward frontal zones where food availability is optimal, and seems to be related to the foraging success during the first phase of the trip.
...