The dissemination of multiple sclerosis: A Viking saga? A historical essay

  title={The dissemination of multiple sclerosis: A Viking saga? A historical essay},
  author={Charles M. Poser},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
  • C. Poser
  • Published 1 December 1994
  • History
  • Annals of Neurology
The highest prevalence rates for multiple sclerosis are found in Iceland, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and the countries settled by their inhabitants and their descendants, that is, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. This suggests that the Vikings may have been instrumental in disseminating the genetic susceptibility to the disease in those areas as well as in other parts of the world. The Vikings raided in most European countries and settled in Normandy and in Sicily and… 
The Etiology of Multiple Sclerosis and Correlation of the Distribution of the Disease with Migration and Settlement History of Northern Europeans
The purpose of this study is to reveal the discrepancies in the epigenetic theories regarding the etiology of multiple sclerosis and to demonstrate the correlation ofmultiple sclerosis prevalence and the migration and settlement history of Northern Europeans, thus conferring the passage of a genetic susceptibility to the disease.
Does Viking ancestry influence the distribution of polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis in Poland?
PMR and GCA are diseases with a Scandinavian genetic background, as confirmed by their increased prevalence among heirs of Scandinavian emigrants and in a few patients who claimed Scandinavian and German ancestry, PMR/GCA was significantly more prevalent.
High Prevalence and Fast Rising Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Caltanissetta, Sicily, Southern Italy
This survey shows the highest prevalence and incidence figures of MS in the Mediterranean area and confirms central Sicily as a very-high-risk area for MS.
Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Latin America and its relationship with European migration
It should be considered that environmental factors may influence the prevalence of MS in Latin America, and it seems as if there are protective factors such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the presence of parasitosis.
'The marvellous harmony of the nervous parts': the origins of multiple sclerosis.
The hypothesis is advanced--based on the epidemiology, clinical neurology, immunology and genetics of demyelinating disease, linked to European history and population genetics--that multiple sclerosis evolved from a related disorder, neuromyelitis optica (or Devic's disease).
Incidence of multiple sclerosis in Bagheria City, Sicily, Italy
It is confirmed that MS is frequent in Sicily with a parallel decrease of the interval between onset and diagnosis of MS.
The spectrum of disseminated encephalomyelitis
Multiple Sclerosis in Southern Europe: Monreale City, Italy
Findings indicate that in Monreale city MS prevalence is stable and confirm Sicily as a high-risk area for MS.
Epilepsy and multiple sclerosis


Multiple sclerosis in Iceland, with observations on the alleged epidemic in the Faroe Islands
The profile of multiple sclerosis in Iceland based on a total population study from 1900 to 1990 is reviewed and no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that an epidemic of MS had occurred in Iceland following the arrival of British, Canadian, and American troops during the Second World War.
Multiple sclerosis is prevalent in the zoroastrians (Parsis) of India
The prevalence rate of clinically definite multiple sclerosis in the distinct but tiny Zoroastrian (largely Parsi) community in the adjacent cities of Bombay and Poona is determined, finding rates much higher than the low rates believed to be prevalent in India, and comparable with those found in parts of Europe and the United States.
The results of the tabulation of multiple sclerosis as one of the defects found in drafted men are plotted and it shows that the maximum rate was found in Michigan and Minnesota, in which there were eighteen persons with this disease per 100,000.
Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Northwestern Sardinia: further evidence for higher frequency in Sardinians compared to other Italians.
The present study confirms the higher frequency of MS among Sardinians compared to other Italian populations and suggests a role of environmental and genetic factors in determining the notable difference in MS risk between Sardinia and the rest of Italy.
During the recent mobilization the neuropsychiatric officers examined approximately 3,500,000 men, draftees and volunteers, and a total of 69,394 cases of nervous and mental disease and defects were identified.
The distribution of multiple sclerosis in the United Kingdom.
The fall in incidence observed in the Orkney Islands, possibly reflecting decline in an exogenous agent interacting with susceptibility factors, is consistent with this multifactorial hypothesis.
The problem of disseminated sclerosis.
This subject ought to be reviewed once again in the hope of arousing fresh interest in a problem which, on humanitarian grounds alone, deserved the attention of those qualified to take part in its investigation.
A reappraisal of the epidemiology of multiple sclerosis in Olmsted County, Minnesota
A review of multiple sclerosis (MS) case reports, using the unified record system at the Mayo Clinic for the Olmsted County population, revealed age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates per 100,000
Does the history of multiple sclerosis go back as far as the 14th century?
  • R. Medaer
  • Medicine
    Acta neurologica Scandinavica
  • 1979
A number of documents written before or shortly after the death of St. Lidwina of Schiedam (1380‐1433) surprised us by their very accurate description of symptoms which for the most part correspond