Disfluency characteristics of Kannada-English bilingual adults who stutter.
This study provides a detailed description of the disfluent speech behaviours produced by a 6;1-year-old bilingual Spanish-English speaking female with confirmed stuttering. Eight language samples across different contexts (narratives and conversations) with the clinician in English and Spanish and the parent in Spanish were analysed. Language samples were transcribed in the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts programme and coded for types of disfluencies based on guidelines for monolingual English speakers. Similarities and differences were noted in speech disfluencies produced in English as compared Spanish. Overall, the participant was more disfluent in English across both her narrative and her conversational output. However, she produced more stuttering-like disfluencies in her Spanish narrative sample than her English narrative sample. Conversely, she produced more nonstuttering-like disfluencies in her English than her Spanish narrative sample. These findings suggest stuttering specific as well as language specific contributors to the fluency breakdowns that characterize the speech output of a bilingual Spanish English child who stutters.