The direct and indirect costs to society of treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis.

@article{Ruiz2013TheDA,
  title={The direct and indirect costs to society of treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis.},
  author={David Ruiz and Lane Koenig and Timothy M. Dall and Paul D. Gallo and Alexa C Narzikul and Javad Parvizi and John R. Tongue},
  journal={The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume},
  year={2013},
  volume={95 16},
  pages={
          1473-80
        }
}
BACKGROUND Although total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis is a cost-effective procedure, payers are focusing on its indications and cost because of its high and growing use. Improvements in pain and physical function from total knee arthroplasty could yield benefits in the form of increased work life and lower disability payments. The purpose of this study was to estimate the value of total knee arthroplasty from a societal perspective, including the costs and benefits to… 

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The need for such research is pressing and opportune, as increasing numbers of patients with knee OA or TKR expect to work on.