The digital code of DNA

  title={The digital code of DNA},
  author={Leroy E. Hood and David J. Galas},
The discovery of the structure of DNA transformed biology profoundly, catalysing the sequencing of the human genome and engendering a new view of biology as an information science. Two features of DNA structure account for much of its remarkable impact on science: its digital nature and its complementarity, whereby one strand of the helix binds perfectly with its partner. DNA has two types of digital information — the genes that encode proteins, which are the molecular machines of life, and the… 
Changing images of the gene.
The Principle of Recursive Genome Function
The principle of recursive genome function (PRGF) is put forward, effectively reversing two axioms of genomics as the authors used to know it, prior to the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project (ENCODE).
Evolution of humans outside the genome.
It is proposed that evolution has occurred in living organisms in two steps, first within the genome and then outside the genome, which has enabled the homo sapiens to attain an enormously high level of cognitive faculty for adaptation of the thought processes to needs in nature at an extraordinarily high speed.
Hydrogen bonding and DNA: 66-year retrospective (briefly)
  • Chemistry
    Biophysical Bulletin
  • 2020
Background: As Yu.P. Blagoi, the memory of who is dedicated to this work, once said: "The molecular structure of DNA — the famous double helix — is stabilized by water molecules and metal ions". The
A personal journey of discovery: developing technology and changing biology.
  • L. Hood
  • Biology
    Annual review of analytical chemistry
  • 2008
This autobiographical article describes the experiences in developing chemically based, biological technologies for deciphering biological information: DNA, RNA, proteins, interactions, and networks; and the development and integration of biological instrumentation.
Is gene duplication a viable explanation for the origination of biological information and complexity?
Although the process of gene duplication and subsequent random mutation has certainly contributed to the size and diversity of the genome, it is alone insufficient in explaining the origination of the highly complex information pertinent to the essential functioning of living organisms.
The expanding transcriptome: the genome as the ‘Book of Sand’
Post‐transcriptional regulation, small RNAs and ncRNAs provide an expanding picture of the transcriptome that enriches the authors' views of what genes are, how they operate, evolve and are regulated.
From Molecular Recognition to the “Vehicles” of Evolutionary Complexity: An Informational Approach
A genuine informational approach to evolutionary phenomena is advocated, in which systemic variation in the informational architectures may induce differential survival (self-construction, self-maintenance, and reproduction) of biological agents within their open ended environment.
Ageing research in the post-genome era: new technologies for an old problem.
The goal of this chapter is to review some of the key technological and methodological advances made possible by the recent sequencing of genomes and summarize their relevance to the study of complex traits like longevity, ageing and age-related diseases.


Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
The determination in 1953 of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), with its two entwined helices and paired organic bases, was a tour de force in X-ray crystallography and opened the way for a deeper understanding of perhaps the most important biological process.
A new method for sequencing DNA.
  • A. Maxam, W. Gilbert
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1977
Reactions that cleave DNA preferentially at guanines, at adenines,At cytosines and thymines equally, and at cytosine alone are described.
Nucleotide sequence of bacteriophage φX174 DNA
The sequence identifies many of the features responsible for the production of the proteins of the nine known genes of the organism, including initiation and termination sites for the proteins and RNAs.
General Nature of the Genetic Code for Proteins
A very elegant series of genetic experiments by which Crick, Brenner, and their collaborators proved that the genetic code for protein was a triplet code using an acridine dye to induce mutations in a specific, well-studied gene of a virus that attacked the bacterium Escherichia coli.
Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome
The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.
The results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome are reported and an initial analysis is presented, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence.
The Human Genome
Even in this unpolished state, these two books provide the most comprehensive look at the human genome ever possible; they offer a tantalizing glimpse at the wealth of information contained in the sequence.
The Sequence of the Human Genome
Comparative genomic analysis indicates vertebrate expansions of genes associated with neuronal function, with tissue-specific developmental regulation, and with the hemostasis and immune systems are indicated.
Fluorescence detection in automated DNA sequence analysis
A method for the partial automation of DNA sequence analysis by means of a fluorophore covalently attached to the oligonucleotide primer used in enzymaticDNA sequence analysis.