The diffusive influx and carrier efflux have a strong effect on the bistability of the lac operon in Escherichia coli.

In the presence of gratuitous inducers, the lac operon of Escherichia coli exhibits bistability. Most models in the literature assume that the inducer enters the cell via the carrier (permease), and exits by a diffusion-like process. The diffusive influx and carrier efflux are neglected. However, analysis of the data shows that in non-induced cells, the… (More)