The diarrhoea of famine and severe malnutrition--is glucagon the major culprit?

  title={The diarrhoea of famine and severe malnutrition--is glucagon the major culprit?},
  author={R. J. Levin},
  pages={432 - 434}
The diarrhoea of famine and severe malnutrition-is glucagon the major culprit? Intractable diarrhoea is usually the terminal condition of victims of famine and severe malnutrition. Despite many studies on the effects of starvation and malnutrition on the absorptive functions of the small intestine in animals,'"4 and a few in man,5'7 no satisfactory explanation exists for this diarrhoea. While it has often been attributed to bacterial infection, extensive bacteriological studies failed to… Expand
14 Citations
Evaluation of a glutamine-containing oral rehydration solution for the treatment of calf diarrhoea using an Escherichia coli model.
A high-calorie oral rehydration solution with glutamine (n=11) was more effective in correcting plasma, extracellular fluid and blood volume than solutions without and had more favourable effects on hyponatraemia and metabolic acidosis than a standard ORS. Expand
Enteral nutrition and the small intestine.
The effects of enteral nutrition on small intestinal mucosal proliferation are focused on, with particular emphasis on the actions of individual nutrients. Expand
Intestinal hypersecretion of the refed starved rat: a model for alimentary diarrhoea.
This behaviour of rat small intestine showing even greater hypersecretion in the refed state than the starved mimics the human condition of alimentary induced diarrhoea where incautious feeding of starved humans induces severe, often lethal diarrhoeA. Expand
Lipid peroxidation and electrogenic ion transport in the jejunum of the vitamin E deficient rat.
The hypothesis that oxidative stress in subjects with compromised antioxidant defences results in small intestinal hypersecretion, which could predispose to or perpetuate protracted diarrhoea, is supported. Expand
Famine, fiber, fatty acids, and failed colonic absorption: does fiber fermentation ameliorate diarrhea?
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition
  • 1994
The salvage function of the colon for absorption of unabsorbed sodium and water from the jejunum and ileum depends upon the metabolic integrity of colonic epithelial cells maintained by luminalExpand
Role of the enteric nervous system in the maintained hypersecretion induced by enterotoxin STa in the nutritionally deprived intestine.
Dietary deprivation, especially chronic undernutrition, enhances the maximum electrogenic secretion due to STa and creates a new neural path in the submucosal plexus that, when activated by STa, maintains its enhanced secretory action. Expand
Intestinal transport during fasting and malnutrition.
Mucosal atrophy induced by FM reduces total intestinal absorption of nutrients, but nutrient absorption normalized to mucosal mass may actually be enhanced by a variety of mechanisms, including increased transporter gene expression, electrochemical gradients, and ratio of mature to immature cells. Expand
Fluid hypersecretion induced by enterotoxin STa in nutritionally deprived rats: jejunal and ileal dynamics in vivo
The enhanced fluid secretion observed in the jejunum and ileum of the starved and undernourished rats compared to the fed rats supports previous in vitro findings of an increased electrogenic secretion induced by STa in these dietary deprivations. Expand
Oral rehydration solutions (ORS): enhancement by a soluble fiber.
The results further support the concept that increased viscosity induced by CMC enhances the effectiveness of ORS. Expand
Gluconeogenesis in the livers of diet-restricted rats--a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study.
Alanine uptake through System A transport, the fluxes through pyruvate carboxylase, the biosynthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides, and the production of glucose from alanine were all significantly decreased with mild intake restriction. Expand


Brunser and coworkers,glo in Chile, by studying only cases with typical kwashiorkor and classical marasmus, have suggested that severe mucosal atrophy is a specific effect of protein depletion (FIGURE 1). Expand
Diarrhoea of famine and malnutrition: investigations using a rat model. 1. Jejunal hypersecretion induced by starvation.
Starvation appears to make the rat jejunum hypersensitive to cholinergic and other secretagogues, increasing the electrogenic secretion of chloride in vitro and that of chloride and fluid in vivo, giving a new insight into possible mechanisms by which the diarrhoea of human famine and malnutrition may be expressed. Expand
Diarrhoea of famine and malnutrition--investigations using a rat model. 2--Ileal hypersecretion induced by starvation.
It is indicated that starvation creates a hypersensitive small bowel that responds to secretagogues and cholinergic neurotransmitters with a greatly enhanced secretory response. Expand
Nutritional therapy for infants with diarrhea.
The current knowledge about, and trends in, feeding infants with diarrhea are examined and treatments for the well-nourished infant with acute diarrhea, the infant with prolonged diarrhea, and the malnourishing infant are discussed. Expand
Experimental data suggest that the first days of treatment should be devoted to restoration of epithelial function, to prevent worsening of diarrhoea by osmotic food loads. Expand
Famine Disease in German Concentration Camps, Complications and Sequels: With Special Reference to Tubercmlosis, Mental Disorders and Social Consequences
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Famine Disease in German Concentration Camps, Complications and Sequels: With Special Reference to Tubercmlosis, Mental Disorders and Social Consequences. By Per Helweg‐Darsen, Henrik Hoffmeyer,Expand
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A meeting was held in Germany by top Gestapo officials, including Adolph Eichmann. This meeting was attended by some of the leading Nazi physicians. They had calculated that if the inhabitants of theExpand
Dietary Carbohydrate and the Kinetics of Intestinal Functions in Relation to Hexose Absorption
The small intestine can be described as an “active interface” between the external environment and the blood and lymph that distribute the absorbed materials for the metabolic needs of the body. TheExpand
Hyperglucagonaemia: effects on active nutrient uptake by the rat jejunum.
It is concluded that glucagon increases nutrient transport across the small intestine and the raised electrical gradient for Na+- coupled nutrient entry into the enterocyte is likely to be a major factor in the transport response. Expand
The intestinal absorption of some essential and non-essential amino acids in fed and fasting rats.
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  • Biology, Medicine
  • Life sciences
  • 1970
While fasted intestine absorbed more essential and non-essential amino acids per g tissue than fed intestine, the significance of the results is unclear due to loss of intestinal tissue. Expand