The development of the parathyroid gland: from fish to human

  title={The development of the parathyroid gland: from fish to human},
  author={Jeffrey D. Zajac and Janine A Danks},
  journal={Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension},
  • J. ZajacJ. Danks
  • Published 1 July 2008
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Purpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to describe the development and function of the parathyroid gland from fish to mammals. We describe the molecular mechanisms regulating parathyroid gland embryogenesis and the clinical syndromes related to mutations in control genes. Recent findingsRecent studies have shown that fish express parathyroid hormone. This is contrary to the long held view that the earliest animals to possess parathyroid hormone were amphibians. Two fish species have… 

Familial Syndromes of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

  • W. Simonds
  • Medicine, Biology
    Calcium Disorders, Hypercalcemia and Hypocalcemia - Recent Advances, New Perspectives and Treatments [Working Title]
  • 2020
Future approaches for the discovery of novel genes pertinent to parathyroid tumor development are the analysis of acquired genetic alterations in DNA isolated from parathyoid tumors and the investigation of familial HPT in kindreds lacking germline mutation in the known genes predisposing to HPT.

Clinical and Molecular Genetics of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

  • W. Simonds
  • Medicine, Biology
    Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et metabolisme
  • 2020
Future investigation of somatic changes inParathyroid tumor DNA and the study of kindreds with HPT yet lacking germline mutation in the set of genes known to predispose to HPT represent two avenues likely to unmask additional novel genes relevant to parathyroid neoplasia.

Study of Parathyroid Transcription Factor Gcm2 Expression in Parathyroid Lesions

  • D. Nonaka
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of surgical pathology
  • 2011
Gcm2 nuclear expression was seen in all the normal parathyroid glands, and cystic, hyperplastic, and neoplastic par Kathyroid lesions in a diffuse manner, whereas no Gcm2 expression was see in any other normal tissues and tumors, including those of the thymus and thyroid gland.

Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Related Syndromes

The normal secretion process of this hormone and diseases when its secretion becomes abnormal and why that happens are briefed in this article.

Mechanisms of thyroid development and dysgenesis: an analysis based on developmental stages and concurrent embryonic anatomy.

Embryology and Anatomy of the Parathyroid Glands

The aim is to reinforce the link between embryology and surgical anatomy in the context of parathyroid surgery such thatParathyroid glands are successfully identified and operative morbidity is minimized.

A Novel Parathyroid Protein in Chicken: Origin, Expression and Function

The Parathormone and Related Peptides Activity and Expression in Chicken and a Novel Member and Comparative Analysis of the Parathyroid Hormone Family in Chicken are presented.

Generation of mice encoding a conditional null allele of Gcm2

The generation and functional characterization of mice encoding a conditional null allele of GCM2 are reported and the functional integrity of the conditional Gcm2 allele is demonstrated and successful in vivo deletion of exon 2 is reported using Cre recombinase.

Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity

Zebrafish larvae exposed to hypergravity results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones, and a novel type of experimental approach is proposed, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day.



The origin of the parathyroid gland.

  • M. OkabeA. Graham
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2004
The results indicate that the tetrapod parathyroid gland and the gills of fish are evolutionarily related structures, and that theParathyroid likely came into being as a result of the transformation of the gill buds during tetrapods evolution.

Genetic ablation of parathyroid glands reveals another source of parathyroid hormone

Gcm2 deletion uncovers an auxiliary mechanism for the regulation of calcium homeostasis in the absence of parathyroid glands, and it is proposed that this backup mechanism may be a general feature of endocrine regulation.

The Role of Hoxa3 Gene in Parathyroid Gland Organogenesis of the Mouse

Results indicate that lack of the Hoxa3 gene affects the intrinsic ability of the third pharyngeal pouch to form the parathyroid rudiment and has no detectable effect on the migration of neural crest cells.

Eya1 is required for the morphogenesis of mammalian thymus, parathyroid and thyroid.

The results indicate that Eya1 controls critical early inductive events involved in the morphogenesis of thymus, parathyroid and thyroid.

The role of Hoxa-3 in mouse thymus and thyroid development.

It appears that the loss of Hoxa-3 affects the intrinsic capacity of this neural crest cell population to differentiate and/or to induce proper differentiation of the surrounding pharyngeal arch and pouch tissues.

Hoxa3 and pax1 regulate epithelial cell death and proliferation during thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.

The results suggest that a Hoxa3-Pax1 genetic pathway is required for both epithelial cell growth and differentiation throughout thymus and parathyroid organogenesis.