The development of ornithology in central Europe

@article{Haffer2007TheDO,
  title={The development of ornithology in central Europe},
  author={J{\"u}rgen Haffer},
  journal={Journal of Ornithology},
  year={2007},
  volume={148},
  pages={125-153}
}
  • J. Haffer
  • Published 17 July 2007
  • Biology
  • Journal of Ornithology
The first ornithologist since Aristotle was the emperor Friedrich II of Hohenstaufen whose work on falconry (written before 1248) includes a general account of birds based largely on his personal observations. Other medieval workers on birds were Albertus Magnus, Thomas di Cantimpré and Konrad von Megenberg. Gybertus Longolius (1544) and William Turner (1544) reported on some birds of the Rhine region. The Renaissance encyclopedist Conrad Gessner (1555) compiled the total knowledge of European… 
History of Ornithology
Before the seventeenth century, interest in birds centred largely on folklore and their symbolic significance. Ray and Willughby's encyclopaedia, the Ornithology of Francis Willughby (1676 and 1678)
The origin of modern ornithology in Europe
TLDR
The “Stresemann revolution” went unnoticed in Great Britain, where the established editorial policy of the leading ornithological journal, The Ibis, from the 1920s to the mid-1940s was to publish articles based on a traditional definition of science, fact-gathering...
The ornithological observations of James Parsons Burkitt in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland
James Parsons Burkitt (1870–1959), a civil engineer and County Surveyor of Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, was one of the pioneers of modern ornithology. He was an experienced field ornithologist when,
The ethology and life history of birds: the forgotten contributions of Oskar, Magdalena and Katharina Heinroth
TLDR
Oskar Heinroth conducted a systematic comparative study of the avian social signals and other behaviours and was the first to recognise that their instinctive, ritualized displays could serve as taxonomic criteria.
Strange Birds: Ornithology and the Advent of the Collared Dove in Post-World War II Germany
TLDR
It is argued that ornithologists’ observation practices have contributed to the construction of a benevolent cultural image of the Collared Dove, a bird species of Asian origin that spread massively throughout Central Europe in the 1940s and 1950s.
Alfred Newton's contribution to ornithology: a conservative quest for facts rather than grand theories
TLDR
Extremely conservative in most aspects of his life, Alfred Newton was nevertheless the first ornithologist to appreciate the significance of natural selection and constitutes an important figure in an era of ornithology that immediately precedes the current interest in field Ornithology.
The role of citizen science in ornithology
TLDR
A respectable part of current ornithology--bird surveys involving broad public participation--thus provides pivotal data for developing conservation science and macroecology, and for detecting long-term changes in wild populations, communities, and the wider environment.
In Memoriam: Jürgen Haffer, 1932–2010, and his contributions to zoology and the history of science
TLDR
The geologist and ornithologist Jurgen Haffer died in his hometown Essen on 26 April 2010, a loss for ornithology in Germany and world-wide as well as for systematics and the history of science.
Poetry and Precision: Johannes Thienemann, the Bird Observatory in Rossitten and Civic Ornithology, 1900–1930
TLDR
Thienemann's ornithology can only be understood by acknowledging its continuous interaction with the geographical and civic context in which it arose, according to this article.
Bird-keeping and the development of ornithological science
TLDR
The significance of observations of captive birds to ornithology is reviewed and it is shown that they have made important and previously unrecognized contributions to the following aspects of bird biology: song acquisition, function and anatomy; territory; breeding biology; external genitalia; migration; instinct and learning.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 226 REFERENCES
Ornithological research traditions in central Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries
  • J. Haffer
  • Biology
    Journal für Ornithologie
  • 2005
TLDR
From the 1920s onward, central European ornithology changed rapidly and general biological studies were emphasized over the earlier systematic-faunistic work (the “Stresemann revolution”).
Avian taxidermy in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance
TLDR
Research on textual and pictorial sources from the period 1200–1700 has revealed the existence of considerably more and earlier examples of bird collections than previously suspected, as well as of a variety of motivations and manual skills required for the preserving of birds prior to 1600.
Contributions of Central European ornithology to world ornithology
  • W. Bock
  • Biology
    Journal für Ornithologie
  • 2005
TLDR
A number of important advances in ornithology which began in Central Europe and subsequently influenced the rest of the world are examined.
Discovering Birds: The Emergence of Ornithology as a Scientific Discipline, 1760-1850
TLDR
In Discovering Birds, Paul Lawrence Farber rejects the view that eighteenth-century natural history disappeared with the rise of nineteenth-century biology and demonstrates interesting continuities: as natural history evolved into individual sciences (botany, geology, and zoology), the study of birds emerged as a distinct scientific discipline that remained observational and taxonomic.
Die „Stresemannsche Revolution“ in der Ornithologie des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts
  • J. Haffer
  • Biology
    Journal für Ornithologie
  • 2005
TLDR
During the 1920s and 1930s, he initiated the global transformation of the traditional ornithology into a branch of modern biological science, a ‘New Avian Biology’, and influenced a large circle of contemporaries (the ‘Stresemann Revolution’).
EDWARD JENNER, PIONEER STUDENT OF TWO MAJOR ORNITHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS
TLDR
Edward Jenner was a pioneer of the late 18th century whose talents for seeing problems, asking questions, and performing simple experiments entitle him to be considered, as far as method goes, as being a predecessor of Darwin and Tinbergen.
Historical Notes on Avian Classification
TLDR
The beginnings of bird classification can be traced back to Aristotle, the father of natural history, although he represents the culmination of Greek science, not its beginning.
Essentialistisches und evolutionäres Denken in der systematischen Ornithologie des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts
  • J. Haffer
  • Philosophy
    Journal für Ornithologie
  • 2005
Essentialistic thinking dominated systematic ornithology in North America during the first half of the 19th century and in Europe until the beginning of this century, when evolutionary thinking
The Colour of Birds: Hans Duncker, Pioneer Bird Geneticist*
TLDR
Hans Duncker was a eugenicist, and when the National Socialists came to power in 1933 he supported and promoted the notion of positive eugenics, but it is shown that Duncker joined the Party only reluctantly.
The Ibis: Transformations in a Twentieth Century British Natural History Journal
TLDR
Comparing the discipline-building rhetoric of moderns with the contents of the past illustrates how modern evaluations of 19th century research programs have been enmeshed in ornithologists' endeavors to forge new identities for traditional disciplines.
...
...