The development of field-emission scanning electron microscopy for imaging biological surfaces.

  title={The development of field-emission scanning electron microscopy for imaging biological surfaces.},
  author={James B. Pawley},
  volume={19 5},
This article traces the important milestones in the development of high-resolution, field-emission, scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Such instruments are now capable of producing images of the surfaces of biological specimens that rival, in terms of resolution and contrast, those produced by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Even though one of the first instruments to produce a useful transmission electron microscope image was, in fact, an early scanning microscope, TEM… CONTINUE READING


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