The development of artemisinin resistance in malaria: reasons and solutions

  title={The development of artemisinin resistance in malaria: reasons and solutions},
  author={Cosima Chrubasik and Raymond L. Jacobson},
  journal={Phytotherapy Research},
Despite world‐wide efforts in fighting malaria, this mosquito‐borne infectious disease is a huge burden for the population, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. The WHO recommends artemisinin‐based combination therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, artemisinin resistance cannot now be ignored. Factors affecting the development of artemisinin resistance include uncontrolled use of artemisinin‐based combination therapy (ACT), mobile populations… 

Combination of artemisinin‐based natural compounds from Artemisia annua L. for the treatment of malaria: Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies

Findings imply that specific components in A. annua might offer a possibility to develop new artemisinin‐based natural combination therapy for malaria treatment, and pharmacodynamic synergism occurring between art Artemisinin and arteannuin B, arteannuic acid, and scopoletin.

Malaria medicines to address drug resistance and support malaria elimination efforts

A historical perspective of antimalarial drug resistance is presented, current evidence of resistance to available antimalaria drugs is reviewed, and possible mitigating strategies to address this challenge are discussed.

Treatment of Malaria Infection and Drug Resistance

The treatment of malaria is not initiated until the diagnosis has been established through laboratory testing, and Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACTs) has been used for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria.

Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and In vivo Antimalarial Activity of the Crude Extracts of the Leaf of African Mistletoe Tapinanthus dodoneifolius Against Plasmodium berghei in Mice

In vivo studies of Plasmodium berghei has revealed a similarity in their structure and gene content with the human malaria parasites, and the ease at which its genome can be subjected to genetic modifications.

A Systematic Review of Anti-malarial Properties, Immunosuppressive Properties, Anti-inflammatory Properties, and Anti-cancer Properties of Artemisia Annua

Anti-malarial, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory properties of this plant are presented using published articles in scientific sites by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases.

Increased Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in Non-splenectomized Saimiri sciureus Monkeys Treated with Clodronate Liposomes

Macrophage depletion by CL is a practical and viable alternative to surgical splenectomy in this experimental model and is capable of promoting higher parasitemia in P. falciparum-infected S. sciureus, associated with evidence of partial macrophages depletion in the spleen and liver.

Artemisia annua - Importance in Traditional Medicine and Current State of Knowledge on the Chemistry, Biological Activity and Possible Applications.

Professional pharmacological studies conducted today have confirmed its known traditional applications and explain previously unknown mechanisms of its biological action and have also found evidence of new directions of biological activity, including, among others, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antitumour, and nephroprotective activities.

Ribonucleotide reductase as a target to control apicomplexan diseases.

The chemotherapeutic methods used to inhibit Ribonucleotide reductase are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the role of RNR inhibition in Apicomplexa, and in light of the novel RNR R2_e2 subunit recently identified in apIComplexan parasites.


  • Medicine, Biology
  • 2019
The assessment of serum urea, creatinine and bilirubin levels in malaria infested wistar rats treated with the crude extract of Artemisia annua and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) was investigated and showed that there was a significant decrease in the serum Urea levels of all the experimental groups when compared with the control.



Evidence of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western Cambodia.

Artemisinins are potent and rapidly acting antimalarial drugs, and their widespread use for treating patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria raises the question of emerging drug resistance.

Advances in global biotechnology and local resources to treat malaria.

The global campaign toward malaria eradication has received a tremendous boost with the addition of artemisinin compounds to the therapeutic armament. Artemisinin drugs are now being recommended in

Simple Field Assays to Check Quality of Current Artemisinin-Based Antimalarial Combination Formulations

Two novel colour reaction assays requiring no specialist training have successfully resulted in detecting two counterfeit drugs within a small scale screening survey of over 100 declared artemisinin-containing drugs collected from various Asian and African countries.

Artemisinin-based combination therapy for treating uncomplicated malaria.

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is another effective first-line treatment for P. falciparum malaria and ACTs with long half-lives may provide some benefit, while the performance of the non-ACT (amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) falls below WHO recommendations for first- line therapy in parts of Africa.

Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies

This model can be a useful tool to inform the design of treatment policies, particularly at a time when ACT has been endorsed by WHO as first-line treatment for falciparum malaria worldwide.

Comparative study of the in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin in two border areas of Thailand.

The lower sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to mefloquine in Mae Sot may play a minor (but amplifying) role, as the activities of artemisinin and meFLoquine show a significant correlation.

WITHDRAWN: Vaccines for preventing malaria.

There is no evidence for protection by SPf66 vaccines against P. falciparum malaria in Africa, and further research with SPf 66 vaccines in South America or with new formulations ofSPf66 may be justified.

Mefloquine for preventing malaria in non-immune adult travellers.

Mefloquine prevents malaria, but there is not enough evidence to evaluate its tolerability and toxicity, particularly for general travellers.