Possible determination of individual chemosensitivity of tumors to 5-fluorouracil was investigated using new original data and suggestions that lymphocytes of the tumor carrier have an ability to assimilate chemical drugs. Such an ability is likely due to the fact that 5-fluorouracil as an antimetabolite converted its action by inclusion of lymphocytes to the nucleic acid metabolism. The relation between the phenomenon and the chemotherapy efficacy is possibly realized through two mechanisms. One of them is the direct cytotoxic action of chemical drugs on lymphocyte tumor-associated clones resulting in impairment of the tumor growth control. The other is possible participation of lymphocytes in transport of chemical drugs to the tumor tissue. The in vitro model for estimation of tumor carrier chemosensitivity by the level of the nucleic acid metabolism reflects the impact of the immune system on realization of the antitumor effect of chemical drugs.